Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Buxus sempervirens
L., Buxaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7.5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Buxus colchica Pojark.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: box, boxtree, boxwood, boxwood tree, Caucasian boxwood, common box, common boxwood, European boxwood, French boxwood, Persian boxwood, Turkish boxwood

Hawaiian: keakula

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  "Evergreen, much-branched, monoecious shrub or small tree up to 3-(8) m high. Shoots puberulent when young, becoming glabrous, 4-ridged. Leaves puberulent when young, becoming glabrous except near mid-vein, ovate or elliptic, retuse, obtuse at base and subsessile or very shortly petiolate, dark glossy green above, paler below, 15-30 mm long; leaf margin entire, somewhat revolute. Racemes congested in lf axils, many-flowered, c. 5 mm in diameter; ♂ flowers with 4 stamens and 4 calyx segments; ♂ and ♀ flowers bracteate. Capsule glabrous, ovoid-oblong, often veined, 6-10 mm long with 3 slightly divergent horns (remnants of styles); seeds ovoid-oblong, glossy black, 5-6 mm long"  (Webb et al., 1988;; p. 451).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand, "scrubland, forest margins, waste places, cemeteries. Box is only locally established as a garden escape. It is grown widely as a hedging plant"  (Webb et al., 1988;; p. 451).  In Hawai‘i, "boxwood is easily cultivated at higher elevations where cooler temperature prevail.  The plants thrive in full sun or partial shade"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 208).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe, northern Africa, southwestern Asia; also cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 208)
cv. "Marginata"
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Randall, R. P. (2007) (p. 86)
Escape from cultivation.
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 451)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
NC, NY, OH, TN, VA


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 2 OCT 2012 and was last updated on 30 OCT 2012.