Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Browallia americana
L., Solanaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: bush violet

French: yeux bleus

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herb to 1 m tall, with erect, ascending, much-branched stems, sparingly hirsute to subglabrate leaves, and flowers borne solitary in axils of upper leaves; petioles 1-2 cm long, moderately to densely hirsute, finally glabrate or nearly so; blades thin, bright green, ovate to ovate-acuminate, 1.5-6 cm long, 1-3.5 (4) cm wide, rounded to broadly cuneate at base, acute to short-acuminate at apex, sparsely to moderately hirsute along veins beneath, less so above, nearly glabrate in age; pedicels slender, 4-5 mm long at anthesis, 10-18 mm long and curving outward and upward in fruit; glabrate in age; calyx narrowly tubular-campanulate, 3.5-5 mm long, hirsute with lax, multicellular hairs to 1.5 mm long, the lobes 5, erect, 1-2 mm long, slightly unequal; corolla tubular-salverform, 10-13 mm long, hirsute without, the tube slightly ampliate into oblique throat 2-2.5 mm long, limb blue, 5-lobed, faintly 2-lipped, 10-12 mm broad, an arc of white overarching 2 small spots of yellow at base of upper lip, limb margins somewhat undulate; stamens 4, didynamous; ovary free, ovoid; style slender, glabrous, strongly curved at apex; capsule broadly ovoid, 6-8 mm long, sparsely puberulent, brownish, dehiscing into 4 teeth, the first split along septa; seeds numerous, rhomboidal, flattened, dark tan to pale brown, 0.4-0.6 mm long, minutely foveolate, dull."  (Wiggins & Porter, 1971)

"Annual herb 15-60 cm high, erect or suberect...  The leaf blades are ovate, up to about 7 x 5 cm; the corolla is blue, sometimes purple or white, with a tube to 20 mm long and a limb about 15 mm in diameter; and the anthers are yellow"  (Smith, 1991; p. 39).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "cultivated and also sparingly naturalized near habitations from near sea level to about 850 m" (Smith, 1991; p. 39). In the Galápagos Islands, "known only along trails and fence rows in the Scalesia Zone" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 458-459).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Tropical America, now widely cultivated and sometimes sparingly naturalized" (Smith, 1991; p. 39). Widely cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 39)
Vouchers cited: DA 811, DA 12139, Greenwood 1116
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. (2000) (p. 30)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 130)
Vouchers cited: Franc 1887, MacKee 26630
Spontané
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  It is considered to be likely introduced in the Galápagos Islands due to its presence only on Santa Cruz island along trails and fences (Chris Buddenhagen, pers. com.).


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This page was created on 20 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 7 MAR 2013.