Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Bromus rubens
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Anisantha rubens (L.) Nevski; Bromus purpurascens Delile

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hong que mai

English: foxtail brome, foxtail chess, red brome

French: brome rougeâtre

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Habit: Annual; culms solitary, or caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 10-40 cm long. Leaf-sheaths hirsute. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 2-12 cm long; 3.5-6 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface hirsute; hairy on both sides. Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle pubescent above. Panicle contracted; obovate; 5-10 cm long; 2-5 cm wide. Panicle branches pubescent. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Spikelets comprising 4-8 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 15-30 mm long; 2-6 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume linear; 5-9 mm long; 0.66-0.75 times length of upper glume; membranous; much thinner on margins; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface glabrous, or hirsute. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 7-13.5 mm long; 0.75 times length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; with hyaline margins; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous, or hispid. Upper glume apex acute. Florets: Fertile florets divergent. Fertile lemma elliptic; 10-17 mm long; 2-3 mm wide; chartaceous; without keel; 5-7 -veined. Lemma lateral veins distinct. Lemma surface glabrous, or pilose. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; with lobes 2-3 mm long; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; straight; 7-23 mm long overall. Palea keels ciliate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. Flower: Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 2 mm long. Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion; pubescent on apex.  Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 8-11 mm long; hairy at apex; apex fleshy. Hilum linear"  (GrassBase)

"It is distinguished from Bromus madritensis by its dense panicle of erect branches, pubescent peduncles, and strongly nerved lemmas less than 3 mm wide"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1507).

Habitat/ecology:  "Deserts and desert scrub, coastal scrub, disturbed sites.  The plant enhances the potential for the start and spread of fires because the dead and dry stems persist for long times"  (Weber, 2003; p. 74).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Canary Islands, northern Africa, Europe and western Asia (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1507)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 25)
Vouchers cited: Hosaka 2521 (BISH), Bherbst 271 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1507)
Voucher cited: Hosaka 1845 (BISH)
Adventive
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 25)
Vouchers cited: Hosaka 1845 (BISH), Hosaka 1853 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Dry slopes; ca. 3900 m. Xinjiang.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 372)
Collected once in 1944, present status unknown.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Idaho, New Mexico, Texas
Naturalized

Control: 

Physical:  "Scattered plants are easy to remove by hand pulling.  Mulching is sued to reduce seedling emergence, prescribed burning in late autumn to kill seedlings".

Chemical:  "Larger stands are treated with herbicides such as atrazine or glyphosate"  (Weber, 2003; p. 72).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.