Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Bromus catharticus
Vahl, Poaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Bromus brevis Steud.; Bromus stamineus E. Desv.; Bromus unioloides Kunth; Bromus unioloides var. elata E. Desv.; Bromus willdenowii Kunth

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: bian sui que mai

English: prairie grass, rescue grass, Schrader's bromegrass

French: brôme de Lavallée, brôme de Schrader

Spanish: cebadilla, cebadilla australiana, cebadilla criolla, pasto del perro, triguillo

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Habit: Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 80-100 cm long. Leaf-sheaths pubescent. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 10-30 cm long; 3-8 mm wide. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong; effuse; 10-40 cm long. Panicle branches flexuous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.  Spikelets comprising 6-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 16-40 mm long; 4-10 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas. Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 10-15 mm long; 0.9 times length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 5-9 -veined. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 11-17 mm long; 0.7-0.8 times length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 9-13 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate. Fertile florets imbricate to tip. Fertile lemma oblong; laterally compressed; 12-20 mm long; 3-7 mm wide; chartaceous; much thinner on margins; keeled; distinctly keeled; 9-13 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough on veins. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; 1-9 mm long overall. Palea 0.7-0.7 times length of lemma. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. Flower: Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 0.5-4 mm long. Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion; pubescent on apex. Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; hairy at apex; apex fleshy. Hilum linear" (Clayton et al., 2002).

"Bromus willdenowii Kunth [= Bromus catharticus var. catharticus]:  "Stout annuals or short-lived perennials; culms erect to spreading, (2.5-) 6-15 dm tall, glabrous.  Sheaths 8-12 cm long, hirsute to pilose or rarely glabrous, often ciliate at throat; ligule 2.5-5 mm long, membranous, glabrous to pilose, apex erose; blades flat, 3-6 mm wide, retrorsely scabrous, sometimes sparsely pilose, auricles absent or minute.  Inflorescence paniculate, (8-) 12-45 cm long, the branches scabrous, 10-20 cm long, often drooping; spikelets 4-7 (-13)-flowered, strongly laterally compressed, (16-) 20-45 mm long; glumes many-nerved, acuminate, strongly keeled, first glume (7-) 8-11.5 mm long, second glume lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, 9-13 mm long; lemmas 14-16 mm long, lanceolate, keeled, many-nerved, minutely scaberulous to glabrous, apex minutely bifid, awns, when present, up to 2.5 mm long; palea 8-10 mm long, acute, ciliolate.  Caryopsis reddish brown, narrowly ovate, 12-14 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1508).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘'i, "naturalized and common in pastures, open areas, and along trails and roadsides, 300-3,050 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1508).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  South America (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"A fairly common alien grass which has been grown for fodder, but is sometimes weedy". Vouchers cited: R.D. Hoogland 8660 (CANB), A.C. Beauglehole 5428 (CANB, MEL)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"A fairly common alien grass which has been grown for fodder, but is sometimes weedy". Vouchers cited: P. Ralston 6 (A), P.S. Green 1448 (A, K), W.R. Sykes NI 923 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 390)
Introduced but failed to persist. Vouchers cited: DA 3588 et al.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1508)
As Bromus willdenowii Kunth [= Bromus catharticus var. catharticus]
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (1997) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Flynn 2180 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (pp. 31-32)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H20709 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1508)
As Bromus willdenowii Kunth [= Bromus catharticus var. catharticus]
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1508)
As Bromus willdenowii Kunth [= Bromus catharticus var. catharticus]; voucher cited: Rock s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1508)
As Bromus willdenowii Kunth [= Bromus catharticus var. catharticus]
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1508)
As Bromus willdenowii Kunth [= Bromus catharticus var. catharticus]
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-5)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 33)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Shady ditch sides. Guizhou, Hebei, Jiangsu, Nei Mongol, Yunnan.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 33)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 55)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 33)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (pp. 356, 361, 371)
"Collected from waste land on roadsides in Alexandra, Central Otago". Vouchers cited: A. J. Healy (CHR 98462), A. J. Healy (CHR 174129)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Shady ditch sides.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé"

Comments:  Naturalized in La Réunion per Christophe Lavergne, pers. com.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 3 MAR 2006 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.