Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Briza maxima
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: da ling feng cao

English: big quaking grass, blowfly grass, giant shivery grass, great quaking grass, greater quaking grass, large quaking grass, quaking grass

French: grande brize

Spanish: corazón de Jesús, ilusión de corazon grande, pastito de Dios, tembladera, templacera, templaderilla, templeque, zarcillitos

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Glabrous annuals, culms 30-60 cm tall, erect or sometimes decumbent at base.  Sheaths 4-8 cm long, usually scarious on margins; ligule 3-5 mm long, membranous; blades 10-30 cm long, 3-8 mm wide, thin.  Panicles drooping, 5-8 cm long, with few spikelets; spikelets 10-20 mm long, 7-12 mm wide, 9-15-flowered, ovate, on flexuous pedicels; glumes prominently 7-nerved, broad, chartaceous, obtuse, scarious, margins usually brown, first glume 5-5.5 mm long, second glume 6-6.5 mm long; lemmas 8-9 mm long, 7-9-nerved, chartaceous, base cordate, acute, margins usually scarious and brown or purple, upper part pilose; palea cuneate or obtuse, 3-3.5 mm long, keels ciliate.  Caryopsis dark brown, 2.5-2.7 mm long, 1.5-1.7 mm wide, keeled, beaked"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp.  1504-1505).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and healthland, forests, riparian habitats, coastal beaches.  Native habitats include hillslopes, coastal scrub and disturbed sites.  It forms dense, species poor swards where invasive that impede the growth and regeneration of native plants"  (Weber, 2003; p. 72).

In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and sparingly naturalized along roadsides, in pastures, and other disturbed areas, 610-1,070 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1505).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Europe, widely cultivated for its large, showy panicles"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1505).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1504-1505)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1504-1505)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1504-1505)
Voucher cited: Lyon s.n. (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Gardens. Frequently cultivated.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 88)
"Often near the coast on roadsides and sandy or shingly waste land".
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "Plants are easy to hand pull.  Mowing before seeds are ripe prevents seed dispersal and kills the plant.  Burning before flower open kills the grass and destroys seeds on the soil".

Chemical:  "Chemical control is done by spring herbicides, best before the flowering stems emerge"  (Weber, 2003; p. 72).


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This page was created on 10 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 9 JAN 2011.