Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Brassica rapa
L., Brassicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: man jing

English: bird rape, bird's rape, birdsrape mustard, colbaga, common turnip, field mustard, turnip, tyfon, wild mustard, wild turnip

French: moutarde des oiseaux, navet blanc, navette sauvage, rave

Other: navet

Spanish: alpiste, colza, mostacilla, mostaza, mostaza blanca, mostaza silvestre, nabo, nabo chino, nabo gallego, nabo silvestre, yuyo

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual with lax rosette.  Stems erect or ascending, glabrous, to 1.5 m tall, sometimes becoming subwoody below.  Lower leaves petiolate, lyrate-pinnatifid with large terminal and 1-3 pairs of lateral lobes, bright green, bristly, 15-25-(30) x 5-10 cm; margins sinuate, toothed.  Upper leaves becoming amplexicaul, glaucous, not lobed, sessile, glabrous, narrowly triangular, entire, 2-10 x 1-2 cm.  Racemes to 40 cm long; open flowers overtopping buds.  Sepals narrow-oblong, (4)-5-7 x 1-1.5 mm.  Petals bright yellow, 6-10 x 3-4 mm.  Lateral stamens spreading.  Silique terete, glabrous, linear-lanceolate, slightly constructed between seeds, (30)-40-60 x 2-5 mm; gynophore 0; valves with prominent median and weaker lateral veins; beak tapering, seedless, 6-10 mm long.  Seeds reddish brown, 1-1.5 mm diameter"  (Webb et al., 1988; pp. 407-408).

Habitat/ecology:  "The plant is found in regions with 350 to 1600 mm of annual precipitation, average temperatures from 5.6 to 25° C, and soil pH from 4.8 to 8.1"  (Duke, 1979, cited in Holm et al., 1997; p. 120).

In Hawai‘i, "presumably cultivated and now naturalized in disturbed habitats, especially pastures"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 400).  In Fiji, "occasionally cultivated and also naturalized as a weed in canefields, waste places, etc., near sea level"  (Smith, 1981; p. 706).  In New Zealand, "common and persistent weed of pastures, roadsides, waste places and gardens"  (Webb et al., 1988; pp. 407-408).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Only cultivated & naturalized, probable origin Eurasia" (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 218)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 14)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 75)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 706)
As. Brassica campestris L.; voucher cited: DA 10364
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 82)
As Brassica pekinensis Rupr.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 400, 1865)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 400, 1865)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 400, 1865)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 17)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Hobdy 3289 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (pp. 6-7)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H129905 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 400, 1865)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 400, 1865)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Pearl and Hermes Reef introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 400, 1865)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 82)
As Brassica pekinensis Rupr.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
Jérémie, J./Hoff, M./Jonsell, B. (1997) (p. 87)
Voucher cited: MacKee 29197
Très répandue comme mauvaise herbe.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 117)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 117)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 110)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 117)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 123)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 122)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 122)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 117)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (pp. 407-408)
"Common and persistent weed of pastures, roadsides, waste places and gardens".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 117)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 20 OCT 2004 and was last updated on 30 DEC 2008.