Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Brassica napus
L., Brassicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 16 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ou zhou you cai

English: annual rape, Argentine canola, canola, colza, oilseed rape, rape, summer rape, Swede rape, turnip, winter rape

French: colza d'hiver, colza de printemps, navette

Japanese: seiyō-aburana

Spanish: nabina, nabo

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or biennial herb with lax rosette. Stems erect or ascending, becoming subwoody below, glabrous, to 1.5 m tall. Lower leaves petiolate, lyrate-pinnatifid with 1-3 pairs of lateral lobes, glaucous, bristly, especially on veins, often ciliate, 10-30 x 5-15 cm. Upper leaves glaucous, becoming entire, sessile, amplexicaul, glabrous, narrow-triangular, entire or toothed, 2-10 x 1-2 cm. Racemes to 40 cm long; open flowers slightly below level of buds. Sepals erecto-patent, (4)-5-7 x 1-2 mm. Petals bright to pale yellow, 10-12 x (4)-5-6 mm. Lateral stamens spreading. Silique terete, glabrous, narrowly oblong, slightly constricted between seeds, (50)-60-80 x 2-5 mm; gynophore 0; valves with pronounced median and weak lateral veins; beak tapering, seedless, 8-15 mm long. Seeds dark brown to blue-black, 1.5-2.5 mm in diameter"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 406).

"Herbs annual or biennial, 30-150 cm tall, glabrous or basally sparsely hirsute, often glaucous, with or without fleshy taproots. Stems erect, branched above. Basal and lowermost cauline leaves long petiolate; petiole to 15 cm; leaf blade ovate, oblong, or lanceolate in outline, 5-25(-40) x 2-7(-10) cm, pinnately lobed or lyrate, sometimes undivided; terminal lobes ovate, dentate, repand, or entire; lateral lobes 1-6 on each side of midvein, much smaller than terminal one, entire, repand, or dentate, sometimes absent. Upper cauline leaves sessile, lanceolate, ovate, or oblong, to 8 x 3.5 cm, base amplexicaul, auriculate, margin entire or repand. Fruiting pedicels straight, divaricate, (1-)1.2-2.3(-3) cm. Sepals oblong, (5-)6-10 x 1.5-2.5 mm, ascending or rarely suberect. Petals bright or pale yellow, (0.9-)1-1.6(-1.8) cm x (5-)6-9(-10) mm, broadly obovate, apex rounded; claw 5-9 mm. Filaments (5-)7-10 mm; anthers oblong, 1.5-2.5 mm. Fruit linear, (3.5-)5-9.5(-11) cm x (2.5-)3.5-5 mm, terete or slightly 4-angled, sessile, divaricate or ascending; valvular segment (3-)4-8.5(-9.5) cm, 12-20(-30)-seeded per locule; valves with a prominent midvein, slightly torulose or smooth; terminal segment conical, (0.5-)0.9-1.6 cm, seedless or 1-seeded; style often obsolete. Seeds dark brown or blackish, globose, (1.2-)1.5-2.5(-3) mm in diameter, minutely reticulate"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand, "Locally naturalised on coasts, and an occasional casual escape from cultivation on roadsides and in cultivated fields"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 406).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Only cultivated, possible origin in cultivation"  (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Voucher cited: R. M. Laing (CHR)
An occasional escape from cultivation.
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 218)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 218)
Lobería Vieja, abundant and of enormous size.
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 218)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Collected in survey, herbarium record pending.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 82)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 183)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 406)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 26 NOV 2008 and was last updated on 1 DEC 2008.