Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Brachypodium distachyon
(L.) P. Beauv., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Bromus distachyos L.; Trachynia distachya (L.) Link

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: er sui duan bing cao

English: false brome, purple false brome, stiff brome

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 3-30 cm long. Leaf-sheaths pilose. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 1-12 cm long; 1-6 mm wide; glaucous. Leaf-blade surface pilose; sparsely hairy. Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; bilateral; 2-8(-10) cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1-7 fertile spikelets on each. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong; 0.5-1 mm long. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 5-16 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 10-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Glumes persistent; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 5-6 mm long; 0.75 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins ribbed. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume oblong; 7-8 mm long; 0.75 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels; 7 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume apex acute. Florets: Fertile lemma oblong; laterally compressed; 8-10 mm long; coriaceous; glaucous; without keel; 7 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous, or pilose. Lemma margins ciliolate; hairy above. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 8-12 mm long overall. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. Flower: Lodicules 2; ciliate. Anthers 3; 0.5-1 mm long. Ovary pubescent on apex. Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; hairy at apex. Embryo 0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis"  (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  In China (Xizang (Mainling)), "dry stony places"  (Flora of China online).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Canary and Madeira Islands, northern Africa, southern Europe, western Asia (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Uncommon, in disturbed areas".
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Xizang (Mainling)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Colorado, Texas


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 8 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 3 APR 2011.