Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Boerhavia erecta
L., Nyctaginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zhi li huang xi xin

English: erect boerhavia, erect spiderling

Spanish: cadillo lagana, colombiana, golondrina, hierba blanca, hoja morada, iscorian, palo de leche

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial, erect herb to 1 m tall, with a robust taprootStems terete, thickened at nodes, green or purple, commonly sticky.  Leaves in unequal pairs, petiolate, glandular, finely hairy, 10-40 - 5-25 mm (larger leaves), and 5-30 - 4-20 mm (smaller leaves).  Inflorescence of axillary and terminal panicles, or umbel-like, with 3-9 flowers per group. Perianth constricted about the middle, green and persistent below, upper parts white to pink, 5-lobed, and falling at maturity.  Fruit to 4 mm long, thin-walled, ribbed, becoming sticky when wet, containing a single, club-shaped, longitudinally-ribbed seed."  (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 57-58).

Habitat/ecology:  "Open, sunny places in disturbed forests, pastures, cultivated land, roadsides and foreshores.  Mostly in regions of seasonal rainfall.  0-2100 m altitude.  A serious weed of annual crops."  (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 57-58). In New Guinea, "a plant of disturbed forest, foreshores and grassland, and a weed of roadsides, pastures, and cultivation. At low altitudes, mostly in regions of seasonal rainfall" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 127).

Propagation:  "The sticky fruit are dispersed externally by animals, including birds and humans" (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 57-58).

Native range:  United States, Mexico, Central America, western South America (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 29)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Española Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Gardner por Espaņola Islet, Española Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Oeste Islet, Española Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Osborn Islet, Española Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinta Group
Pinta Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Plaza Norte Islet, Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Fé Group
Santa Fé Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 29)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 57-58)
Low elevations with seasonal rainfall.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 127)
At low altitudes, mostly in regions of seasonal rainfall.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 107)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 51)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 107)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Open sandy areas. Hainan".
China
China
Hong Kong   Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 74)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 110)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 181)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 88)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 17)
"Weedy sod back of beach". Voucher cited: Fosberg 36859 (US)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 49)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  A weed species in Australia (Barbara Waterhouse, pers. com.)


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This page was created on 9 AUG 2004 and was last updated on 3 JAN 2008.