Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Boerhavia coccinea
Mill., Nyctaginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hong xi xin

English: hogweed, red spiderling, scarlet spiderling

French: bécabar bâtard, herbe pintade, macatia vert

Spanish: hierba de la hormiga, hierba del cancer, mata pavo, patagon, tostón, yerba de puerco

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Prostrate to ascending perennial herbs, leafy in lower 1/2, diffusely paniculate in upper 1/2; stems glandular puberulent and sparsely pilose with long multicellular hairs, branching opposite near base, upward usually becoming alternative by suppression of 1 branch of a pair, angle of branching wide.  Leaves broadly ovate to suborbicular, very variable in size, up to 2.5 cm long, 3-5 pairs of nerves, converging toward the base, lower pairs close together or even palmate, upper surface green, obscurely glandular, lower surface paler, glabrous except with some long hairs on lower part of midrib and veins, surface marked with white raphide bundles, margins conspicuously long-ciliate, apex obtuse to subacute, base obtuse to truncate or subcordate, petioles 0.5-1 (-2) cm long, long-ciliate.  Flowers subsessile or very short-pedicellate, in few-flowered glomerules, these arranged in large, very open panicles, branching many times (up to 10) at wide angles, sparsely glandular, distal branches filiform, upper articulations of panicles with small pilose bracts, those subtending glomerules hyaline, lanceolate, acuminate; perianth strongly constricted near middle, limb magenta or crimson to dark red, campanulate, ca 2.5 mm long, glabrous; stamens 2.  Anthocarps narrowly obconical-clavate, 3-4 mm long, apex abruptly contracted to an obtuse point, ribs prominently stipitate glandular, occasionally with a few glands in the wide furrows, the furrows also with many longitudinally arranged raphide bundles."  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 978)

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "rapidly spreading, now common in coastal or slightly inland, disturbed places such as roadsides, 0-10 (-140) m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 978).

Propagation:  Seeds, which cling to clothing and fur.   "A nuisance in coastal areas and beach parks because of the sticky fruit"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Native range:  Africa; Arabian Peninsula; Australia; Caribbean; North, Central and South America (GRIN); Caribbean (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 978).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 71)
Presence not verified.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649495)
Taxon name on voucher: Boerhavia coccinea Mill.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000153)
Taxon name on voucher: Boerhavia coccinea Mill.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 978)
Voucher cited: Herbst 5023 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 978)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 978)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 010523-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 9)
Uncommon. Found only near quarters.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H109915 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 978)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H70108 (BISH, PTBG)
Widespread and locally abundant.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 978)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 48-49)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Australia, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Sunny sites in disturbed areas. Hainan".
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 48-49)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 48-49)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 48-49)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island uncertain if native
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Envahissant (indigène?)"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Chemical: "Foliar application of triclopyr amine product at 2% in water provided good control (Hank Oppenheimer, Maui Pine)"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2010.