Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Blechnum appendiculatum
Willd., Blechnaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 17 (Go to the risk assessment).

Habit:  fern

Description:  "May be recognized by its 1-pinnate fronds with pinnae having two long sori close to and parallel with the midribs, and stolon-bearing rhizomes.

"Plants medium-sized.  Rhizomes erect, stoloniferous, stolons subterranean, long-creeping.  Fronds 20-60 cm long, clustered at tips of rhizomes, young fronds colored pink to rosy.  Stipes about 1/2 frond length, straw-colored, with scattered tan scales in lower parts, well clothed with very short, chainlike hairs.  Blades 1-pinnate, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, pinnae well separated in basal 2/3, gradually becoming pinnatifid at tips; rachises grooved, straw-colored, abaxial surfaces well covered with very small, inconspicuous, 0.1-mm glands, small, short glandular hairs and stubby round-tipped hairs, abaxial surface with fewer of these structures.  Pinnae 6-20 pairs before becoming pinnatifid near blade tips, short-stalked proximally to adnate distally, ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-8 cm long, basal pinnae smaller or not, margins entire, adaxial costal groove not continuous with rachis groove.  Veins joining to form continuous linear veins (commissures) close to and parallel to costae, forking distally.  Sori long-linear on pericostal vein commissures, 1-5.5 cm long, extending most of length of pinnae.  Indusia tan, scarious, opening inward"  (Palmer, 2003; pp. 79-81).

Note:  This fern has uniformly been called Blechnum occidentale L. since it was first reported in Hawaii; however, the rachises of B. occidentale are entirely glabrous but those of B. appendiculatum Willd. are minutely pubescent and glandular, as is the naturalized Hawaiian species (Palmer, 2003; p. 81).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "Common as clones forming large colonies in closed-canopy mesic forests, especially on rock or rocky substrates, and occurring in all but the most extreme habitats 30-1,560 m"  (Palmer, 2003; pp. 79-81).  "Prefers a half shady to shady site. It grows best in soils that are moist"  (Hortipedia).

Propagation:  Spores

Native range:  United States (Florida and Texas), Trinidad and Tobago, through Central America, South America (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Chemical: "Probably susceptible to dicamba and glyphosate"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 14 DEC 2012 and was last updated on 21 DEC 2012.