Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Bidens alba
(L.) DC., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Shultz-Bip.; Coreopsis alba L.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: beggar's tick, burr marigold, cobbler's pegs, Guam daisy, romerillo, shepherd's needles, Spanish needle

Nauruan: kauen oe, kawen oe

Palauan: emuul

Pohnpeian: dihpwketipwehl suwed, koionleng wah pwetepwet, moaresed, ngkahu

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect annual or short-lived perennial herbs 0.3-1.5 m tall.  Leaves simple or pinnately compound, usually 6-17 cm long including petiole, leaflets 1-3.  Heads 3-18 in compound cymes terminating main stem and lateral branches, 2.2-4.2 cm in diameter including ray florets, peduncles 0.8-11 cm long; outer involucral bracts spatulate-tipped, (2-) 4-5 mm long; ray florets 5-8 per head, sterile, rays white, 10-16 mm long; disk florets 26-69 per head, perfect; pappus of 2 awns 1-2 mm long. Achenes black, straight, wingless, 4-12 mm long, setose."  (Wagner et al., 1999)

Key to distinguish between Bidens alba and Bidens pilosa:

Ray florets 5-8 per head, rays 10-16 mm long:  Bidens alba
Ray florets absent or 4-7 per head, rays 2-8 mm long:  Bidens pilosa  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 270).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "in lowland disturbed area" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 270).  On Kwajalein (Marshall Islands), "common to locally abundant in disturbed areas such as roadsides and lawns" (Whistler & Steele, 1999; p. 33). In Guam, "it is extremely common now, all over the island, not only in waste ground but sometimes at the fringes of forest, sometimes forming dense thickets nearly 1 m tall" (Stone, 1970; p. 583).

Propagation:  Seed. Barbed achenes adhere to clothing, feathers and fur.

Native range:  Florida to South America and the West Indies (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 270).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 48)
var. radiata
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35337)
Taxon name on voucher: Bidens alba (L.) DC.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9144)
Taxon name on voucher: Bidens alba var. radiata
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 283)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 67)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 67)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7874 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21063)
Taxon name on voucher: Bidens alba var. radiata (L.) DC.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 72)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3855 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4304 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 187 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 122 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 58430 (BISH), N. Krauss 1881, S. Perlman 20340 (PTBG), S. Perlman 21405 (PTBG)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (p. 209)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 58430 (US, BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 37720)
Taxon name on voucher: Bidens alba (L.) DC. var. var. radiata (Sch. Bip.) Ballard ex Melchert
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43656)
Taxon name on voucher: Bidens alba
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. radiata (Sch.-Bip.) Ballard ex Melchert. Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence, L. Dunn, S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 9026 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39348)
Taxon name on voucher: Bidens alba var. radiata
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 583)
Voucher cited: Stone 5048 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 283)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 270)
var. radiata
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 270)
var. radiata
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 270)
var. radiata
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 8)
var. radiata. Previously reported, not observed in this survey.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 20)
Var. radiata. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H100625 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 270)
var. radiata
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Hughes 42 (BISH)
Sparingly naturalized to at least 410 m elevation in plantations and on disturbed, dry ridges in lowland areas.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 270)
var. radiata
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
As Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch.Bip.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 33)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 33)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 3639; Herbst 8891, Herbst 8917, Herbst 8948, Herbst 8970, Herbst 8988, Herbst 8991; Whistler 11270
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 36639 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 47463)
Taxon name on voucher: Bidens alba
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 5)
"Abundant; in lawns and ruderal areas; this was the principle invasive weed that residents complained about as being problematic and obnoxious".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 69)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Maloelap Atoll   Imada, Clyde (2006)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A10)
Uncommon; patches in runway, other ruderal areas of Mili, some on Bar, Nallo, not observed on Tokewa; compared with other atolls, relatively few infestations, some residents are aware of the undesirable nature of this species and have made efforts to control.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0514200909
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 98)
Vouchers cited: Scully 142N (US), Thaman & Manner 76 (SUVA)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1144)
Taxon name on voucher: Bidens alba (L.) DC.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 283)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 25)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4421)
Taxon name on voucher: Bidens alba (L.) DC
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 48158)
Taxon name on voucher: Bidens alba
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 105)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 8, 62)
Voucher: Lorence 9781 (PTBG, BNM, NY, TAMU, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 74)
Taxon name on voucher: Bidens alba (L.) DC.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 7, 62)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeremdiu Island eradicated
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 7, 62)
Single specimen found, destroyed.
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Merir Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 109)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 109)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Eastern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-4)
var. radiata
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 270)
var. radiata
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-4)
var. radiata
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Spit Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-4)
var. radiata
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 33)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 276)
In wasteland.
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 18)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 26)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37886)
Taxon name on voucher: Bidens alba (L.) DC.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "Pulling is difficult, but hand weeding can be effective if done repeatedly for an extended period"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 13).

Chemical:  "Triclopyr (Garlon 4) can be used as a foliar spray"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 13).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 18 JAN 2003 and was last updated on 27 AUG 2010.