Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Bauhinia variegata
L., Fabaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Reject, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Other Latin names:  Bauhinia alba hort.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yang zi jing

English: bauhinia, butterfly tree, mountain ebony, orchid tree, purple orchid tree, white bauhinia

French: arbre à orchidées, arbre de Saint-Thomas, bois de boeuf, sabot boeuf

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees, deciduous, to 15 m tall. Bark dark brownish, nearly smooth; branches gray puberulent when young, later glabrous. Petiole 2.5-3.5 cm; leaf blade suborbicular or broadly ovate, 5-9 x 7-11 cm, subleathery, abaxially almost glabrous, adaxially glabrous, primary veins 9-13, secondary and higher order veins protruding, base shallowly to deeply cordate, apex bifid to 1/3, lobes rounded at apex. Inflorescence a raceme, few flowered, sometimes corymblike, axillary or terminal. Flower buds fusiform, smooth, subsessile. Calyx open as a spathe into 2 lobes. Petals white, or with pink or purplish spots, obovate or oblanceolate, 4-5 cm, clawed. Fertile stamens 5; filaments ca. as long as petals, slender. Staminodes 1-5 and small, or ?absent. Ovary stalked, puberulent; style curved; stigma small. Legume linear, flat, 15-25 x 1.5-2 cm; valves woody. Seeds 10-15, compressed, suborbicular, ca. 10 mm in diameter"  (Flora of China online).

Key to some Bauhinia species:

Fertile stamen 1; staminodes 5, small; petals long-clawed, 4-5.5 x 2-3 cm, white to pink, with red blotches or dots, the uppermost one splotched with deeper red, yellow or yellow-margined; leaf blades ovate-oblong, 7-20 cm long and broad, cordate to rounded at base, pubescent beneath when young, lobed about 1/5-1/2 their length, the lobes obtuse to subacuminate. B. monandra.

Fertile stamens 3-10.

Petals crimson to deep red, yellow-dotted without, 2.5-4 cm long, the claw nearly as long as the lamina; fertile stamens 3; leaf blades crescent-shaped, 2-5 cm long and broad, cordate to rounded at base, shallowly lobed to about 1/3 their length, the lobes rounded. B. galpinii.

Petals white or yellow to purple, not clawed or with a claw much shorter than the lamina.

Fertile stamens 10; corolla campanulate, the petals yellow, 1-3 of them sometimes purple-blotched within, 2.5-5.5 cm long, overlapping at margins; leaf blades variable but subcircular, up to 10 x 11 cm long and broad, sometimes pilose beneath, truncate to subcordate at base, usually lobed to about 1/3 their length, the lobes rounded. B. tomentosa.

Fertile stamens 3 or 5.

Flower buds 4- or 5-angled or -winged; petals pale purple, shading to pinkish proximally, oblanceolate, 3-6 cm long, not more than 2 cm broad; fertile stamens 3; staminodes 7; leaf blades elliptic to suborbicular, 6-19 cm long and broad, rounded to cordate at base, lobed 1/2-1/4 their length, the lobes rounded to acute. B. purpurea.

Flower buds not angled or winged; petals pale purple or rose or white or yellow, obovate 4-6 cm long, 2-3 cm broad, the uppermost one broader; fertile stamens 5; staminodes 5, about half as long as stamens; leaf blades broadly ovate to suborbicular, 5-14 cm long and broad, cordate to truncate at base, lobed about 1/3 their length or less, the lobes rounded. B. variegata.

From: Smith, A. C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: A new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawai‘i. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Vol. 3, p 119.

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "perhaps sparingly naturalized in forest at higher elevations as well as cultivated near sea level"  (Smith, 1985; p. 121). In New Caledonia, "cultivé et parfois naturalisé" (MacKee, 1994; p. 72).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  India through eastern Asia; widely cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island   ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 121-122)
var. candida. Vouchers cited: DA 14759, Greenwood 790
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 32811)
Taxon name on voucher: Bauhinia variegata L.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Agassiz 104 (GH)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 140)
Voucher cited: Florence 4728
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 153031)
Taxon name on voucher: Bauhinia variegata L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492580)
Taxon name on voucher: Bauhinia variegata L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 140)
Voucher cited: Florence 4478
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4478 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 555134)
Taxon name on voucher: Bauhinia variegata L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher cited: Rock s.n. (BISH 455968)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. (2000) (p. 21)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Voucher cited: Flynn 1521 (BISH 505840)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Voucher cited: Rock 12956 (BISH 54750)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 137)
Voucher cited: Hassall 194 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 72)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 2383, MacKee 5244
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 72)
Vouchers cited: Balansa s.n., Admin. Pénit. 69, Denizot s.n.; cv. "Candida"; voucher cited: MacKee 39295
Spontané
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 84)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 65)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Tropical forests, also cultivated; 1000-1500 m".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 134)
Also var. candida Buch.-Ham.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 18)
Cultivated only
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana, Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  A problem species in Florida. Reported weedy in gardens in Hawai‘i (Staples et al., 2000; p. 21).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 2 MAR 2013.