Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Barleria lupulina
Lindl., Acanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: hophead Philippine violet

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Erect shrub; stems and leaves glabrous; spines 3 in lower axils, 2 deflexed ca 1-2 cm long, 1 shorter and upright. Leaves narrowly obovate, spine-tipped; lamina 3.5-9 cm long, 0.8-1.2 cm wide; petiole 2-3 mm long. Inflorescence a terminal spike with overlapping bracts; bracts broadly ovate, 15 mm long, shortly mucronate, green with purple upper half, very shortly pubescent all over, cup-shaped-glandular at base; bracteoles lanceolate, ca 5.5 mm long, sparsely glandular. Calyx segments spine-tipped, pubescent, lanceolate; outer 10 mm long, inner ca 8 mm long. Corolla yellow, finely eglandular pubescent outside; tube ca 3 cm long; lobes ca 1 cm long. Longer stamen filaments ca 2 cm long; shorter stamens fertile. Style ca 3 cm long, glabrous. Capsule not seen" (Du Puy, 1993; p. 383).

Habitat/ecology:  Roadsides and disturbed areas, to 1000 ft. elevation.  "Persistent an invasive in open woodland habitats and along watercourses" (Smith, 2002; p. 27).

Propagation:  "Seed is spread short distances when capsules rupture and by water. Spread by humans as ornamental plantings and in discarded garden refuse" (Smith, 2002; p. 29).

Native range:  Native to Madagascar and India, widely naturalized elsewhere (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 83).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 11)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 125)
Vouchers cited: DA 16756, DA 16462
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34227)
Taxon name on voucher: Barleria lupulina Lindl.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 170)
Occasional escape.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 15, 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 18)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 8, 18)
Voucher: Lorence 9765 (PTBG, BNM, NY, TAMU, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 57)
Taxon name on voucher: Barleria lupulina Lindl.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 96)
Garden escape.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 27)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 27)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 251)
Ornamental.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 18)
Cultivated only
Timor-Leste
Timor-Leste
East Timor Island introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 105)
Naturalized
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 16)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David (year unknown)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Invasive in Timor and Queensland, Australia (Barbara Waterhouse, pers. com.). Cultivated and some naturalization in Hawai‘i (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 170).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 21 OCT 2010.