Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Averrhoa bilimbi
L., Oxalidaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: bilimbi, pikue

Chinese: san lian

English: bilimbi, cucumber tree, pickle, tree cucumber, tree sorrel

French: zibeline

Palauan: imekure, imekurs, oterebekii

Pohnpeian: bilimbi

Spanish: bilimbí, grosella China

Yapese: kumim

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A shrub or small tree 4-10 m high (to 15 m elsewhere), with yellowish red to purple sepals and red petals.  It is usually cauliflorous aand ramiflorous, the leaves having 15-41 leaflets with predominantly oblong blades usually 3-7 x 1.5-2.5 cm, acute at apex, a few proximal ones smaller than the distal ones.  The fruits are green, terete to obtusely angled, ellipsoid to obovoid, up to 10 x 5 cm, with seeds 6-8 x 4-6 mm and lacking arils."  (Smith, 1985)"Small tree; leaves up to 60 cm long, with 20-36 leaflets, these 3-9 cm long; flowers red and white, cauliflorous; fruit oblong-cylindric, smooth, subterete, to 7 cm long, yellowish, acid (very sour), crisp"  (Stone, 1970; p. 348).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "sparingly cultivated near sea level" (Smith, 1985; p. 628).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Unknown, now pantropical and widely cultivated (Stone, 1970; p. 348).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 121)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 119)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 121)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 628-629)
Vouchers cited: DA 12099, DA 16299
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 91)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D. Baré 109 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 91)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 91)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 91)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6589 (PAP)
Rarement planté à Tahiti.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 348)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 121)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 22860)
Taxon name on voucher: Averrhoa bilimbi
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 114)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 178-179)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 121)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4484)
Taxon name on voucher: Averrhoa bilimbi L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4430)
Taxon name on voucher: Averrhoa bilimbi L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 48156)
Taxon name on voucher: Averrhoa bilimbi
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 121)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 121)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 593)
Taxon name on voucher: Averrhoa bilimbi L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1316)
Taxon name on voucher: Averrhoa bilimbi L.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 121)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago native
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 265)
In undisturbed places, near villages and in secondary forest.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 324)
Throughout the settled areas, cultivated and semicultivated.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Widely cultivated and freely escaping along rivers and in secondary vegetations. Guangdong, Guangxi.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 17)
Casual
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Widely cultivated and freely escaping along rivers and in secondary vegetations.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 105)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 151)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 887 (K, US), Rhyne 672 (US), Rhyne 771 (US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (pp. 29, 34)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38078)
Taxon name on voucher: Averrhoa bilimbi L.
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 9)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 22)
"Commonly planted around houses". Voucher cited: Fosberg 36907 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 152)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52112 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 56)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 1 SEP 2012.