Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Asystasia gangetica
(L.) T.Anderson, Acanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Asystasia coromandeliana Nees; Justicia gangetica L.; Ruellia zeylanica J. Koenig ex Roxb.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: kuan ye shi wan cuo

English: asystasia, Chinese violet, coromandel, Philippine violet

French: herbe le rail, herbe piment, herbe pistache

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Decumbent herb, tending to be bushy sometimes slightly woody below, stems geniculate below, branches ascending or erect, irregularly appressed puberulent, especially at or near nodes, stems somewhat angular or striate; leaves thin, ovate to almost orbicular, apex acuminate, base obtuse to subcordate, margins entire, few pairs of veins; stipules none; racemes terminal, strongly one-sided or secund (cymose?), becoming elongate, pedicels slightly curved, distally very short, 1-3 mm, bracts and bracteoles triangular acuminate, 1-2 mm long; calyx-lobes lanceolate-acuminate, 5-7 mm long, hairy; corolla 3-4 cm long, purple to yellow or white, tube 0.5-1 cm long, tending to be slightly curved, throat narrowly campanulate, slightly compressed dorsiventrally, lobes suborbicular, slightly flaring, obtuse to rounded, throat and lobes very thinly puberulent outside; capsule about 3 cm long, basal stipe-like part 1.5 cm, distal, fertile part irregularly ellipsoidal or ovoid, acuminate; seed irregularly disk-shaped, pale, margin irregularly scalloped, sides rugose" (Fosberg et al, 1993; pp. 24-25).

Habitat/ecology:  "Chinese violet is a rapidly growing perennial, shrubby herb which grows to 1 m height but can grow over shrubs up to 3 m tall.  It can smother all vegetation in the herbaceous layer.  Chinese violet grows in dry habitats between sea level and 300 m" (C.W. Smith, 1985).  In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and commonly becoming naturalized, primarily in urban areas or in low elevation, disturbed habitats"  (Wagner et al., 1999); "in mesic to dry habitats"  (Motooka et al., 2003)..  In Fiji, "cultivated or naturalized near settlements near sea level"  (A.C. Smith, 1985).  In Niue, "naturalised in some waste areas in and around the villages.  In Alofi, one or two sloping banks near the radio station were almost carpeted with this plant.  It was especially evident on ground that had fairly recently been cleared of scrub" (Sykes, 1970; p. 37).

Propagation:  Seed, rhizomes. The seeds are dispersed from explosive capsules but long-distance dispersal is effected by man (C.W. Smith, 1985; p. 185).

Native range:  Africa and India; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9393
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83857)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 127439)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 420284)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Herbst & Falanruw 6920 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 63)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 26454)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 25)
Voucher: BMW 5800 (BISH, BRI, AD)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 687773)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 11)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 64)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 4157 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4158 (NY, PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 43617)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 43620)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 124)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 738, 738A, 1115; DA 10830, 11546, 12111; H.B.R. Parham 55
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1945) (voucher ID: BISH 695484)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 41900)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anderson
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42255)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anderson
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12188 (PAP). "Ornementale rare, se naturalisant aisément".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 662589)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11663 (PAP), J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11664 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643311)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643418)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64911 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 607776)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
University of California (2006)
"Cultivated in gardens and disturbed areas".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5009 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 574233)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia (Genus of Acanthaceae)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 63569
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 599295)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 19)
Vouchers cited: BRY 24840, Florence 2634
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1997)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2634 (PAP), J. Florence 2872 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Ornementale assez commune à Tahiti.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491047)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 558267)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia (Genus of Acanthaceae)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 573203)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. (2000) (p. 1)
Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H119820 (BISH), Oppenheimer H119821 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 168)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H100636 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 168)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 168)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 168)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
Presence not verified.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 28)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 98)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 4)
"Rare; single plant in container by private residence in Ine".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 57)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0518200913
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: Scully 127N (US?), Hassall 231 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 8)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 28505, Létocart in MacKee 44674
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: CHR 169945
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 5)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 7)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 24)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 109)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9805 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 39)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 84)
ssp. gangetica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 8, 21)
Voucher: Lorence 9780 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 73)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1983) (voucher ID: PTBG 26442)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
ssp. gangetica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
ssp. gangetica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
ssp. gangetica
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands possibly introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 480)
In thickets near towns at low altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Whistler 2246
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 698180)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 49)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 70)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 1)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 322, Soakai 703
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 243)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15796
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 127438)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 664363)
Taxon name on voucher: Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 70)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 1)
Voucher cited: Soakai 1032
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 168)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown)
See comments below.
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Forest margins, roadsides. Naturalized in Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) possibly introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) possibly introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) possibly introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 16)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Forest margins, roadsides.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 105)
Garden escape
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 16)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 36)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
Subsp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu. "Naturalisé/±envahissant"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 38)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 344)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 145)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3155 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2681
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 188)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 344)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  A potential problem species in French Polynesia.

Subsp. micrantha is a serious invader in Malaysia and Indonesia.  Small infestations are being eradicated in northern New South Wales, Australia. (Barbara Waterhouse, pers. com.)

Control: 

Chemical:  "Probably sensitive to hormone-type herbicides" (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 1 MAR 2013.