Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Asclepias curassavica
L., Apocynaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: asuncion

Chinese: ma li jin

Chuukese: wanuailiyos

English: bastard ipecac, bastard ipecacuana, bloodflower, bloodflower milkweed, butterfly weed, cottonbush, false ipecac, Madagascar cottonbush, milkweed, milky cottonbush, red butterfly weed, red cotton bush, red head cottonbush, red milkweed, red-cotton, redhead, scarlet milkweed, silkweed, silky butterfly weed, swallowwort, tropical milkweed, wallflower cottonbush, West Indian ipecacuana, wild ipecac, wild oleander

Fijian: false ipiciachuana, vu ni lolia, wathiwathi

French: asclepias de Cura7#231;ao, herbe à gendarme, herbe à sang, ipéca sauvage

Hawaiian: lauhele, laulele, nu‘umela, pua ‘anuhe

Hindi: madhar

Maori (Cook Islands): tirika, tirika, tirika, tirika

Marshallese: ialo, ialu, kabbok, kappok, yelo

Nauruan: dupaimdupaim, dupaimdupwaim

Pohnpeian: kimeme

Samoan: pepe toa, pepe toa, pepe toa

Satawalese: margarita, pugarigarita

Spanish: algodoncillo, bencenuco, calerona, corcalito, flor anaranjada, flor de la reina, flor de muerte, flor de sangre, flor de seda, hierba de la vibora, lechosilla, mal cascada, marianilla, mata caballo, mata caballo, nino muerto, oficial de sala, platanillo, quita soliman, sangria, senorita, yuquillo

Tahitian: tirita

Tongan: fisi puna, lou pepe, tulanga pepe, tu‘ula pepe, vavae kona

Habit:  herb

Description:  "An erect, glabrous, perennial sometimes annual herb; 30 to 120 cm tall, with a milky sap throughout; stems smooth, round, dull green or suffused with dull red; leaves simple, opposite, shortly petioled, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate; 7 to 13 cm long and 6 to 25 mm wide; the base narrowed; inflorescence an umbel with 6 to 15 flowers on terminal or axillary peduncles; flowers perfect, radial symmetry or irregularly shaped, bright red or orange with yellow centers; sepals 5, deeply divided, reflexed, green; petals 5, linear, base united into a fused corolla; corolla lobes red, reflexed, oblong, shaped with inwardly curved horns; stamens 5, anthers with two pollen sacs; pollen aggregates into masses called pollinia or pollen sacs; style filaments united; pistil 20carpelled; fruit a pair of dry, dehiscent, spindle-shaped follicles, 5 to 15 cm long, many-seeded, splitting lengthwise on one side at maturity; seeds ovate, flat, winged, 4 to 6 mm long, 2.2 to 4 mm wide, brown, minutely ridged, with a pappus of fine, white silky hairs at apex, 2 to 3 cm long.  This species is unique in having reflexed corolla lobes and the corona and style filaments united on top to form a broad stigma.  The milky sap in all parts and the opposite leaves also help identify the plant"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 82).

"Erect branched herb to 1.5 m tall; leaves opposite, oblong-lanceolate, acute at both ends, 6-15 cm long, 1-3 cm wide; cymes on peduncles 3-6 cm long, 4-15-flowered; flowers bright red-and-yellow; calyx-lobes to 4 mm long; corolla to 9 mm long; corona-scales to 4 mm long; stamen-tube to 3 mm long; follicles ovoid-oblong, 5-7.5 cm long; seeds 6-7 mm long, with silky-white tuft of hairs 2-2.7 cm long"  (Stone, 1970; p. 487).

"Herbacée dressée pérenne de 50 cm à 1,5 m de hauteur, à base ligneuse, reconnaissable à ses inflorescences de fleurs orangées et rouges, ses follicules dressés contenant des graines munies d’un pappus plumeux et disséminées par le vent sur de grandes distances" (Meyer, 2008; p. 21).

Habitat/ecology:  "Occurs most frequently in pastures, wastelands and along roadsides.  It grows from sea level to over 1500 m in its region of origin.  It prefers open, sunny environments and is found on a wide range of soils" (Holm et al., 1997; p. 82).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in low elevation, often dry habitats" (Wagner et al, 1999; p. 240).  In Fiji, "seen as a coarse herb to 1.5 m high from near sea level to about 900 m, locally frequent along roadsides, in open fields, and in coconut plantations" (Smith, 1988; pp. 109-110).  "Occasional as a weed, particularly in pastures" (Whistler, 1988; p. 7). Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 258). In Papua New Guinea, "a weed of roadsides, waste land and pastures, also in grassland, particularly in savannahs. From low altitudes to 1500 m; most often in areas of seasonal climate" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 59). In Tonga, "a common waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; pp. 222-223). In New Caledonia, "elle est maintenant largement dispersée sans jamais être abondante" (MacKee, 1994; pp. 19-20); "échappé des jardins depuis 6-7 ans et intestant depuis lors à de grandes distances de Nouméa les terres argileuses humides" (Balansa 238, 1868); "vulgaire dans toute l'Ile" (de Pompéry s.n., 1880).

Propagation:  Plumed seeds that float in the wind (Whistler, 1983; p. 20).

Native range:  Tropical America, widely naturalized in the tropics (Smith, 1988; pp. 109-110).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
American Samoa Islands
American Samoa Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 57)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 21, 28)
"Nous l’avons observée sur les côtes sud et nord de l’île, notamment dans les zones pâturées et cultivées où elle peut former des tâches monospécifiques. Elle se développe sur les sites archéologiques, notamment sur les « moai » couchés de Rano Raraku. Une tâche dense a également été observée dans le cratère Rano Kau dans une trouée forestière" (Meyer, 2008; p. 22).
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 192)
Taxon name on voucher: Asclepias curassavica L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 384)
Taxon name on voucher: Asclepias curassavica
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Etal (Ettan) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Murilo (Mwiriné) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namonuito (Namonweito, Nómwun Wiité) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Nomwin (Nómwiin) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
invasive
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 151 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1950) (voucher ID: PTBG 45059)
Taxon name on voucher: Asclepias curassavica
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Mokil (Mwokil) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Nukuoro Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pingelap Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 91)
Voucher cited: Ledermann 13480 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 69)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 26208 (BISH), C.L. Ledermann 13480 (BISH), H. St. John 21490 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Lamotrek Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46877 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 109-110)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 891
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 109-110)
Voucher cited: DA 8882
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Totoya Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 109-110)
Voucher cited: DA 13247
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 109-110)
Voucher cited: DA 8817
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 109-110)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 198, Smith 4318, Gibbs 592, H.B.R. Parham 110, DA 7698, Tothill 606
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Thibault 1045 (PAP), J.-C. Thibault 1062 (PAP), J. Florence , S.P. Perlman & M. Teikiteetini 9358 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1960) (voucher ID: PTBG 45055)
Taxon name on voucher: Asclepias curassavica
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4388 (PAP), J. Florence 6715 (PAP), J. Florence 6765 (PAP), J. Florence 6909 (PAP), J. Florence 8439 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 41016)
Taxon name on voucher: Asclepias curassavica
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11710 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 45)
Voucher cited: E. Murray 71
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4800 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 45)
Vouchers cited: Moore 687, BRY 26435
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3796 (PAP), J. Florence 10339 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 45)
Voucher cited: BRY 26053
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5366 (PAP), P. Birnbaum 106 (PAP), J. Florence & P. Birnbaum 9788 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 64)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 37)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 33)
Uncommon.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11232 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6532 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 487)
Voucher cited: Stone 3894 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 240)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 240)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 240)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 240)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 19)
Caum reported this species as rare but not seen on this survey.
Status unknown.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 240)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 240)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 240)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 240)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 29)
Collected once in the 1800's but not recorded since.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 77)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Marakei Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 73)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 26727 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Lae Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Lae Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34068 (US)
Occasional escape.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Namorik (Namdik) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Namu Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 37)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 33975 (US)
Occasional escape.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1951) (voucher ID: PTBG 45058)
Taxon name on voucher: Asclepias curassavica
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. i)
Voucher cited: Anderson 3778
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 5)
Not observed on this survey. "Hatheway reports that it was brought in experimentally, which seems to have been the case in much of the country, and in most areas, it did not survive; as an attractive ornamental periodically found on Majuro, it could be reintroduced at any time".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 68)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1951) (p. 285)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mejit (Mãjej) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 37)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 33658 (US)
Occasional escape.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 97)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 19-20)
Vouchers cited: Sarasin 789 (Z), Däniker 3109, Guinaudeau in MacKee 30076
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 19-20)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45879
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 379)
Largement dispersée sans jamais être abondante.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 19-20)
Vouchers cited: Balansa 238, de Pompéry s.n., MacKee 2735, MacKee 38924
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 19-20)
Voucher cited: MacKee 23580
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 191)
Taxon name on voucher: Asclepias curassavica L.
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Pulo Ana Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 109)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 219)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 109)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 189)
Taxon name on voucher: Asclepias curassavica L.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 455)
Naturalized about inhabited places and in coconut plantations.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 34)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 59)
From low altitudes to 1500 m; most often in areas of seasonal climate.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 341)
In the settled areas, in open waste places in and about settlements, ascending to at least 1,500 m.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1921) (voucher ID: PTBG 45057)
Taxon name on voucher: Asclepias curassavica
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 7)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 48)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 83)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Scarth-Hohnson 95
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 223)
"Common throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 223)
Voucher cited: Hülimann 229
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 7)
Vouchers cited: Moseley s.n., Lawrence 24, Lawrence 42, Soakai 235
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 223)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15003
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Harvey s.n.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 223)
Cited: Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 47)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 7)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 80)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 80)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated and naturalized in Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Qinghai, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 214)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 80)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 80)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 16)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Naturalized
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 36)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 10)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 156)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 810 (K, US), Stoddart 762 (K), Rhyne 612 (US), Wiehe in 1939 (MAU)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 26)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37892)
Taxon name on voucher: Asclepias curassavica L.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana, Texas
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  "Naturalized widely on Guam" (Stone, 1970; p. 487).

Control: 

Physical:  "La lutte manuelle par arrachage des plants" (Meyer, 2008; p. 22).

Chemical:  "La lutte chimique par pulvérisation d’un herbicide sur les feuilles (glyphosate) sont possibles sur de petites surfaces envahies" (Meyer, 2008; p. 22).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 21 JUN 2010.