Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Arundina graminifolia
(D.Don) Hochr., Orchidaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Bletia graminifolia D. Don

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zhu ye lan

English: bamboo orchid

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Tufted terrestrial herbs 10-25 dm tall, arising from short horizontal rhizomes; stems usually crowded together, completely enclosed by a series of persistent sheathing leaf bases.  Leaves firm, grass-like, linear-lanceolate, 8-30 cm long, 0.5-1.5 (-2) cm wide, midrib impressed on upper surface, conspicuously raised on lower surface, margins entire, sheaths 2-4 cm long.  Flowers in terminal, racemose or paniculate inflorescences 10-70 cm long, peduncles slender, dark green or reddish purple, glabrous, bracts erect, broadly ovate, 3-7 mm long; sepals plae pink to rose, the dorsal one ascending, elliptic to elliptic-obovate, 3-4.5 cm long, ventral sepals appressed to surface of labellum, elliptic, 3-4.5 cm long; lateral petals similar in color to sepals, spreading or reflexed horizontally, broadly elliptic to obovate, 2.5-3.8 cm long; labellum pale to dark reddish purple, ± with yellow markings on the throat, 4-5 cm long, entire or weakly 3-lobed, middle lobe undulate, deeply cleft, margins irregularly crenate.  Capsules pendent, cylindrical, 6-ribbed, 3.5-5.5 cm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1471).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and sometimes locally common in disturbed, mesic to wet forest, and as a pioneer on lava fields, 75-920 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1471).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southeastern Asia, India, Malesia, and a number of Pacific islands (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1471). "India, southern China, southeastern Asia, and Malesia as far as Celebes. The species is widely cultivated and has become naturalized in parts of the Pacific" (Smith, 1991; p. 402).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 402-403)
Vouchers cited: DA 16709, DA 12294
Sparsely naturalized.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 116)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1471)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1471)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1471)
East Maui.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. (2000) (p. 7)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H119812 (BISH), Oppenheimer H89910 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1471)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 45)
Rare.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 370)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 16)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Usually in sunny grasslands or waste places below 700 m".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)


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This page was created on 13 MAY 2005 and was last updated on 5 NOV 2011.