Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Arthrostemma ciliatum
Pav. ex D. Don, Melastomataceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: arthrostemma, everblooming eavender, pink fringe

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Scandent perennial herbs; stems succulent; 1-4 m long, glabrous or glandular pilose.  Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-4.3 cm long, 1.4-4.5 cm wide, 5-7-nerved, upper surface sparsely bristly, lower surface glabrous to glandular bristly, margins ciliolate-serrulate, apex acute to long-acuminate, base truncate to subcordate, petioles 0.6-3.2 cm long.  Pedicels 7-15 (-19) mm long in fruit; hypanthium 7-10 mm long in flower; calyx lobes 1-3.5 mm long in fruit, 2-3.5 mm wide at base, with 1-2 subapical glandular hairs; petals obliquely apiculate, 2-3 cm long, 1.1-1.6 cm wide; anthers of larger stamens ca. 6 mm long, connective prolonged 0.25-0.5 mm or 5-7 mm below and modified basally into ventral, bifid spurs ca. 1.5 mm long or linear, apically acute or lobed spurs 3-5 mm long, respectively, anthers of smaller stamens ca. 5 mm long, connective not prolonged ventrally but modified at the filament insertion into a deeply notched spur ca. 2 mm long.  Fruiting hypanthium oblong-ellipsoid, 15-20 mm long, 8-9 mm wide.  Seeds ca. 1 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 905-906).

Habitat/ecology:  "Sprawling growth smothers smaller plants in pastures and along forest edges"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Propagation:  Seed, probably spread by birds.

Native range:  Neotropics; cutivated elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 905-906)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 905-906)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  This species exhibits two distinctive floral morphs that are otherwise identical in vegetative and fruit characters. One exhibits subequal incurved stamens with barely prolonged connectives below the anther sacs. The other morph has markedly unequal stamens with the larger set having prolonged connectives below the anther sacs that are conspicuously bent at the filament insertion (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 905-906).

Control: 

Chemical:  "Sensitive to foliar applied triclopyr at 1 lb/acre; dicamba less effective; 2,4-D poor"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 27 FEB 2013.