Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Artabotrys hexapetalus
(L.f.) Bhandari, Annonaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk, score: 0 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Artabotrys odoratissimus R. Br. ex Ker Gawl.; Artabotrys uncinatus (Lam.) Merr.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ying zhua hua

English: climbing ilang-ilang, climbing ylang-ylang, ylang-ylang

French: coq du levant, coque du levant

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "A powerful climber, the old stems of great thickness, covered with rather smooth grey bark and furnished with thick woody pointed spreading spines 2-4 cm long.  Leafy branches slightly puberulous.  Leaf-blade 6-15 cm long, 2-4.5 cm wide, narrowly elliptical, usually 3 to 4 times as long as wide, acute or almost so at base, short-acuminate at apex, not glossy; lateral veins 8-16 pairs.  Pedicel sparsely pubescent.  Sepals about 5 mm long, pubescent on outside.  Outer petals up to 1 cm wide.  Carpels glabrous.  Fruitlets 3-4 cm long when ripe, ovoid, conspicuously apiculate, quite glabrous.  Seeds 15-20 mm long, pale brown, smooth" (Dassanayake, 1983; p. 51).

"Climbing shrub, to 12 ft. long; leaves narrowly oblong-lanceolate, to 6 in. long; flowers not showy but very fragrant, 1-2 together on low peduncles, sepals reflexed, yellow, petals about 1 in. long; fruit narrowly obovoid, yellow, 1 1/2 in. long, sessile, in dense clusters 20 in long" (Bailey & Bailey, 1976; p. 111).

Habitat/ecology:  Moist forests (Bailey & Bailey, 1976; p. 111).  In Sri Lanka, "formerly rather commmon in dry country forests but rarely collected during the past decades" (Dassanayake, 1983; p. 51).

Propagation:  Seed.  "The fleshy fruit attracts birds and rats; several collectors have noted that this species seems to escape from cultivation, and it reseeds itself freely"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; pp. 110-111).

Native range:  Sri Lanka, southern India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Taiwan; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN). "A native of southern Deccan Peninsula and Ceylon; reported from Java and South China but not indigenous there" (Dassanayake, 1983; p. 51).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 82)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7724 (PAP)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Nagata, Kenneth M. (1995) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Natata 3891 (BISH)
In kukui forest.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 24)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 001122-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Nagata, Kenneth M. (1995) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Nagata 3787 (BISH, HLA)
In disturbed forest.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 15)
Vouchers cited: H. Brinon 1, Veillon 4544, Suprin in MacKee 45442
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 173)
As Artabotrys uncinatus) (Lam.) Merr. In occasional cultivation.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-4)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Widely cultivated, rarely naturalized; 100-300 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 39)
Cultivated in gardens.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 15)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Widely cultivated, rarely naturalized; 100-300 m.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 18)


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This page was created on 3 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 27 FEB 2013.