Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Armoracia rusticana
P. Gaertner, B. Meyer & Scherbius, Brassicaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate; score: 1 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Armoracia rusticana)

Other Latin names:  Armoracia lapathifolia Gilib. ex Usteri; Cochlearia armoracia L.; Nasturtium armoracia (L.) Fr.; Radicula armoracia (L.) B. L. Rob.; Rorippa armoracia (L.) Hitchc.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: horseradish

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Roots fusiform or cylindrical, fleshy or woody. Stems 5-12(-20) dm. Basal leaves: petiole to 60 cm (broadly expanded basally); blade broadly oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or ovate, (10-)20-45-(60)&nbnsp;cm × (30-)50-120(-170) mm, margins usually coarsely crenate, rarely pinnatifid. Cauline leaves: proximal shortly petiolate, blade oblong to linear-oblong (lobed), smaller than basal, margins pinnatifid or pinnatisect; distal sessile or shortly petiolate, blade linear to linear-lanceolate, base cuneate or attenuate, margins usually serrate or crenate, rarely entire. Racemes to 40 cm. Fruiting pedicels ascending, 8-20 mm. Flowers: sepals 2-4 mm; petals obovate or oblanceolate, 5-7(-8) mm, claw to 1.5 mm; filaments 1-2.5 mm; anthers 0.5-0.8 mm. Fruits (rarely produced), 4-6 mm; style obsolete or to 0.5 mm; stigma well-developed. Seeds compressed (often not produced, rarely to 4 per locule). 2n = 32 (Al-Shehbaz in JSTOR Plants)

Habitat/ecology:  "[Armoracia rusticana] grows along riverbanks and in other damp places. Ruderal plants are mainly confined to secondary anthropogenic habitats; for example, near arable land, in urban areas and in rural gardens." (IUCN Red List)

"Altitude range 01100 m" (Al-Shehbaz in JSTOR Plants)

Propagation:  ". . . [Armoracia rusticana]. . .is very difficult to eradicate, [sic] even tiny root fragments are capable of regenerating new plants." (Al-Shehbaz in JSTOR Plants)

Armoracia rusticana rarely produces fruits/seeds. (Al-Shehbaz in JSTOR Plants)

Native range:  "Native: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, East European Russia, Kaliningrad, North European Russia, Northwest European Russia, South European Russia); Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part))" (IUCN Red List)

Impacts and invaded habitats:  "[Armoracia rusticana] is. . .a noxious weed that is very difficult to eradicate, [sic] even tiny root fragments are capable of regenerating new plants." (Al-Shehbaz in JSTOR Plants)

(no invaded habitats or impacts known by PIER; please let us know if you know of such information we should add here)

Presence:

Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Asia
Asia
Asia   Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A. (year unknown)
accessed 20180414
British Columbia (province of Canada)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A. (year unknown)
accessed 20180414
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004)
Armoracia rusticana is listed in a table entitled "lien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004)"
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A. (year unknown)
accessed 20180414
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A. (year unknown)
accessed 20180414
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A. (year unknown)
accessed 20180414
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada
Canada
Canada introduced
invasive
Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A. (year unknown)
accessed 20180414; "Canada B.C.Canada Man.Canada N.B.Canada N.S.Canada Ont.Canada P.E.I.Canada Que.Canada Sask."; cites as "noxious weed that is very difficult to eradicate," but not in any location in particular
Canada
Canada
Canada introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meewasin Valley Authority (2016)
accessed 20180414
Europe
Europe
Europe native
Smekalova, T./Maslovky, O. (2011)
accessed 20170927
Europe
Europe
Europe   Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A. (year unknown)
accessed 20180414
United States of America
United States
United States introduced
invasive
Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A. (year unknown)
accessed 20180414; "USA Calif.USA Colo.USA Conn.USA IdahoUSA Ill.USA Ind.USA IowaUSA MaineUSA Mass.USA Mich.USA Minn.USA Mo.USA Mont.USA Nebr.USA N.H.USA N.J.USA N.Mex.USA N.Y.USA N.C.USA N.Dak.USA OhioUSA Oreg.USA Pa.USA R.I.USA S.Dak.USA Tenn.USA UtahUSA Vt.USA Va.USA Wash.USA W.Va.USA Wis.USA Wyo."; cites as "noxious weed that is very difficult to eradicate," but not in any location in particular
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A. (year unknown)
accessed 20180414; "USA Calif.USA Colo.USA Conn.USA IdahoUSA Ill.USA Ind.USA IowaUSA MaineUSA Mass.USA Mich.USA Minn.USA Mo.USA Mont.USA Nebr.USA N.H.USA N.J.USA N.Mex.USA N.Y.USA N.C.USA N.Dak.USA OhioUSA Oreg.USA Pa.USA R.I.USA S.Dak.USA Tenn.USA UtahUSA Vt.USA Va.USA Wash.USA W.Va.USA Wis.USA Wyo."

Comments:  "Armoracia rusticana has been widely cultivated for about 2000 years for its fleshy roots that are grated to produce the pungent horseradish sauce." (Al-Shehbaz in JSTOR Plants)

Control:  "[Armoracia rusticana] is. . .a noxious weed that is very difficult to eradicate, [sic] even tiny root fragments are capable of regenerating new plants." (Al-Shehbaz in JSTOR Plants)

There is research that ". . .demonstrates the effectiveness of both halosulfuron and 2,4-D as components of an integrated management strategy for volunteer horseradish control and the potential for halosulfuron applications without soil persistence beyond 4 months impacting subsequent commercial horseradish production." (Johanning et al. 2016)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 21 MAY 2018.