Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Argemone mexicana
L., Papaveraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Pacific (high risk, score: 22 (Go to the risk assessment)).
Australia (reject, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment)).

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ji ying su

English: Bermuda thistle, goatweed, Mexican poppy, Mexican prickly-poppy, Mexican thistle, prickly poppy, yellow prickly poppy, yellow thistle, yellow-flower Mexican-poppy

French: argémone du Mexique, argémone Mexicaine, chardon, chardon béni, chardon du pays, herbe à femme, pavot épineux

Japanese: azamigeshi

Spanish: adormidera espinosa, amapolas del campo, amapolo pinchuda, cardo amarillo, cardo blanco, cardo santo, chicalote

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Coarse erect herbs with milk sap and prickly stems and leaves; leaves somewhat irregularly pinnatilobed and serrate, glaucous, the edges crisped-undulate, each tooth spinose; flowers sessile, yellow, showy, up to 6 cm broad."  (Stone, 1970)"Annual herbs; stems 2.5-10 dm long, branched, sparsely to moderately covered with prickles.  Leaves glaucous, oblong-oblanceolate, pinnately lobed, 1/2-3/4 to midrib, both surfaces sparsely covered with prickles along veins, margins somewhat sinuate-dentate, the teeth tipped with a prickle, sessile, upper ones usually somewhat clasping the stem.  Buds subglobose, 1.2-1.6 cm long, sparsely prickly; sepal horns terete, 5-10 mm long; petals bright yellow, 1.7-3 cm long; stamens 30-50; ovary 4-6-carpellate.  Capsules oblong to broadly ellipsoid, 3-4.2 cm long, each valve with 9-15 prickles, the longest one 7-10 mm long.  Seeds numerous, 1.2-1.5 mm in diameter"  (Wagner et al, 1999; pp. 1005-1006).

Habitat/ecology:  "Adapted to a very wide range of habitats.  In Mauritius it is most plentiful in the subhumid regions, whereas in Puerto Rico it is most prevalent in the semiarid northern regions.  Though often seen at sea level, it is a weed at an elevation of 2,900 m in Tanzania.  It is found on many soil types, on cultivated ground, in pastures, in fence rows, on stony ridges, along roads, in waste places, and on bare soil.  It seems to prefer moist sites, growing freely along rivers in Australia and following sandy riverbeds in southern Africa" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 176).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry, disturbed habitats" (Wagner et al, 1999; pp. 1005-1006).  In Fiji, "occasionally naturalized as a weed in sandy soil and in cane fields near sea level" (Smith, 1981; p. 154). In New Caledonia, "mauvaise herbe largement répandue et parfois abondante" (MacKee, 1994; p. 112).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  The Americas, exact native range obscure. Cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 81)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 154)
Vouchers cited: DA 9625, DA 10318, DA 11158, DA 11177
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 286)
Voucher cited: Stone 4160 (GUAM)
Naturalized
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 81)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1005)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1005)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wysong, Michael/Hughes, Guy/Wood, K. R. (2007) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: B. Barnett s.n. (BISH 718652)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 112-113)
Vouchers cited: Sarasin 731 (Z), MacKee 28298
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 112-113)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 44042
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
Mauvaise herbe largement répandue et parfois abondante.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 112-113)
Vouchers cited: Pennel 149, Pennel 370, Däniker 140 (Z), MacDaniels 2026, MacKee 5681, MacKee 11872, MacKee 35899; var. ochroleuca (Sweet) Lindl., vouchers cited: MacKee 15890, MacKee 40853
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 112-113)
Voucher cited: Baumann 13565
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 144)
See comments below. Voucher cited: CHR 168709
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 78)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 206-207)
In and about towns, a weed in waste places, widely distributed.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 154)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 178-179)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 178-179)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 178-179)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Naturalized along coasts, introduced in courtyards".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 56)
Ornamental.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 80)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 80)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 80)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 183)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 80)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 80)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 19)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 178-179)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 130)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 152)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3140 (K)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Reported present by Sykes, 1970, p. 144, and proposed for eradication at that time. Current status not known although Whistler (1988) reports "rare on Niue, possibly now eradicated, not seen by the author".


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 27 FEB 2013.