Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Arenga pinnata
(Wurmb) Merr., Arecaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Arenga saccharifera Labill. ex DC.; Saguerus pinnatus Wurmb

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: cabo-negro

Chinese: sha tang ye zi

English: areng palm, black-fiber palm, gomuti palm, Malay sago palm, sugar palm

French: palmier à sucre, palmier areng, palmier condiar

Spanish: barú, bary, palma de azúcar

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trunk to more than 10 m high; leaves numerous, large, to nearly 10 m long; pinnae to 11 on each side, linear, clustered, borne in several planes, dark green above, whitish beneath, auricled at base; sheaths coarsely fibrous with very stout, black spines like knitting needles; inflorescences solitary, usually unisexual, staminate flowers deep red to purple-black, with numerous bright stamens; pistillate flowers green; fruit to 6 cm long; seeds black"  (Smith, 1979; p. 407).

"The sugar palm is a large, single-trunked palm.  The leaves are large (to 9 m), dark-green above, silvery below, with the long leaflets ragged at the tips.  The trunk is covered by loose, brown-black fibrous material mixed with long, stiff, spinelike fibers.  At maturity this palm flowers from the top down, eventually dying.  The fruits are dark red, about 2.5 cm in diameter, and are extremely irritating to the skin, containing calcium oxalate crystals"  (Daehler & Baker, 2006; p. 5).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i (O‘ahu), naturalized in Lyon Arboretum where plants are probably in their third generation, and "they form dense stands locally"  (Daehler & Baker, 2006; p. 5).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  India, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 80)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 35)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 407)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 137)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 80)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (p. 66)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED115 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Daehler, Curtis C./Baker, Raymond F. (2006) (p. 5)
Vouchers cited: C. Daehler 1318 (HAW), F.B. Essig 680725 (HLA)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands possibly introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 159-160)
Planted here and there around towns and abundant in some forested areas but never at any great distance from settled areas; generally planted. It has all the appearance of an introduced palm that has become naturalized.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated near villages or in towns. Fujian (Xiamen), Guangdong (Guangzhou), Hainan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 293-294)
Ornamental.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also cultivated.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaya
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 15)
Cultivated only
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 20 FEB 2010 and was last updated on 10 FEB 2013.