Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Antigonon leptopus
Hook. & Arn., Polygonaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: cadena de amor, flores kádena

English: bride's tears, chain-of-love, Confederate vine, coral vine, coralita, hearts on a chain, love-vine, Mexican creeper, Mexican love vine, mountain rose, mountain-rose coralvine, queen's jewels

French: liane antigone, liane corail, rosa-de-montana

Palauan: dilngau

Pohnpeian: rohsenpoak suwed

Spanish: bellísima, corazon bello, kadena de amor

Tongan: ‘ufi

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Robust vine to 10 m long or more; petioles 0.6-1.5 cm long; leaf blades 2.5-7.5 (10) cm long, cordate-ovate, hastate-ovate, or triangular, prominent reticulately veined, acutish to acuminate (and often apiculate), the lower ones much larger; inflorescence paniculate, the branches bearing flowers in clusters along the rachis, the rachis tip tendrillate; flowers bright pink or white, enlarging 1-4 (5) cm long; achenes conical, sharply 3-angled above, ca 6 mm long, much exceeded by the veiny, persistent, enlarged perianth."  (Welsh, 1998). "A vine; leaves angular, textured; broadly ovate, 3-9 cm long, cordate; petioles 1-5 cm long; racemes several-flowered; pedicels 1 cm; flowers pink in some forms, white in others; fruiting very rarely; fruit an achene" (Stone, 1970; p. 263).  A white-flowered horticultural variety exists.

Habitat/ecology:  The plant grows well in disturbed areas and is well adapted to dry coral cliffs and their derived soils. It tolerates drought by defoliation and regrows strongly after rain" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 19).  "Completely smothers native plants in the wet season, out-competing vines and understorey plants.  Leaves dry out and drop during the dry season providing fuel for damaging fires." (Smith, 2002; p. 44). Smothering vine.  Often escapes cultivation. Dry to moist lowland areas. Favors limestone (basic) soils. 

In Hawai‘i, "commonly cultivated and now sparingly naturalized in disturbed areas, 0-25 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1060, 1888).  In Fiji, "cultivated in gardens and hedges near sea level and also naturalized along roadsides and in waste places"  (Smith, 1981; p. 305). In Tonga, "occasional in villages or along roadsides" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 106). In New Caledonia, "cette espèce ornementale est commune dans les jardins et parfois naturalisée" (MacKee, 1994; p. 116).  In Papua New Guinea, "cultivated in lowland regions; sometimes found wild at roadsides, particularly on banks and cutting-faces"  (Womersley, 1978; p. 223).

Propagation:  "Spreads...by its trailing stems, which are broken off and carried about during earthmoving. Buried stems produce roots at the nodes, whilst aerial stems develop into tangled masses of linked plants. It also probably reproduces by seed, which fall by gravity from the plant. The viability of the seeds in the soil is unknown but is probably several years." (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 19).

Prolific seed producer. Seeds float on water, which helps transport them to new locations. Fruits and seeds are eaten and spread by domestic and wild animals (birds, pigs).

"Tubers can be spread by the movement of soil.  Vegetative reproduction from root suckers also seems to occur.  As an ornamental creeper the plant is spread via the nursery trade." (Smith, 2002; p. 44).

Native range:  Mexico and possibly Guatemala; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 59)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 66)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 2154 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 212)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 3266 (US)
Probably persisting from cultivation.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58975
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 66)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 5)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 66)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 66)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 13)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 13)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 13)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 664866)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 664886)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 5)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 22)
Invasive species.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 66)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (pp. 3, 10)
A few cultivated individuals noted.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 56)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 124)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 58521 (BISH)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 66)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 617428)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 305)
Vouchers cited: DA 12127, DA 14431
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 32616)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus Hook & Arn.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 15867 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40884)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus Hook & Arn.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64926 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2798 (PAP)
Ornementale commune à Tahiti, tend à se naturaliser.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491176)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2997 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 170675)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 263)
Voucher cited: Stone 4155 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 66)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 94)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (pp. 3, 9)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 23179)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1060)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1060)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1060)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1060)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 40)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 050517-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1060)
Sparingly naturalized.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 21)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 80543)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 601747)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 601748)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 66)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 11)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 102)
Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll cultivated
Herbst, D. R. (1988)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 115)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 182)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58679 (US), Thaman & Manner 59 (SUVA), Swarbrick 9562 (BRIU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 116)
Vouchers cited: Shepherd in Mueller s.n. (MEL), Franc 481, Däniker 1683, MacKee 16076, MacKee 25180, MacKee 43458
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 170)
Voucher cited: CHR 168716
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 7)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9960 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 8)
Subject of eradication program.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 66)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 621)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 162)
In gardens and parks.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Womersley, John S., ed. (1978) (p. 223)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 125)
Common in cultivation for ornamental purposes.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 31)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & B. Christian 11190, St. John 14992
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 333-334)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Escaping cultivation in Honiara and Munda
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘afeva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 640483)
Taxon name on voucher: Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 106)
"Occasional in villages or along roadsides"
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (pp. 23-24)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990505-10 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island   Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (p. 24)
Not seen in this survey, probably eradicated.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 141)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 44)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 141)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 44)
Naturalized around old homesteads.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 82)
Cultivated ornamental.
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Possibly native in western part.
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 29)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 14)
Casual
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 19, 104)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/envahissant"
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 17)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Extensively invading disturbed areas and forest edges on the northern half of Guam; much less so on Saipan, Tinian and Yap. Although only a few cultivated plants were noted on Pohnpei, it is apparently not a recent introduction, as it was noted in cultivation by Glassman (1952; p. 56) (Space & Falanruw, 1999).

Invasive in the Virgin Islands (Fred Kraus, communication to Aliens Listserver).

Invasive on calcareous soils in Timor (Barbara Waterhouse, pers. com.).

Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Miami-Dade County Dept. of Planning and Zoning, 2010).

Control: 

Physical: "Pulling plants and harvesting underground tubers is effective if used repeatedly for an extended period"  (Englberger, 2009, p. 3).  Cutting alone is ineffective. Underground tubers must be removed or plants will re-sprout.

Chemical: "Pending the results of field trials infestations...should be sprayed with 2% Roundup plus Pulse after rain when the leaves are free of dust and the plants are growing vigorously" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 19).  "Triclopyr (Garlon 4) can be used as a foliar spray"  (Englberger, 2009, p. 3).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 24 FEB 2013.