Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Anthoxanthum odoratum
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: huang hua mao, xiang huang hua mao

English: scented vernal grass, spring grass, sweet vernalgrass, sweet-scent vernal grass

French: flouve odorante, foin d'odeur

Japanese: harugaya

Spanish: alesta olorosa, alpistillo, grama de olor

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Slender perennials, forming small tufts; culms erect or spreading, 30-60 cm long, ca. 1 mm in diameter, hollow, glabrous, nodes darker than internodes, glabrous.  Sheaths 3-8 cm long, striate, shorter than internodes, glabrous or with weak retrorse hairs, ciliate at throat; ligule conspicuous, sometimes purple, membranous, 1.5-4 mm long; blades 5-20 cm long, 2-7 mm wide, glabrous or with scattered weak, soft hairs, conspicuously auriculate.  Inflorescence a spike-like, solitary, terminal, cylindrical panicle 3-8 cm long, 0.5-1.5 cm in diameter, peduncle slender, smooth, 10-35 cm long, rachis obscured by the closely imbricate spikelets, the branches very short; spikelets subsessile, lanceoloid, 6.5-10 mm long; glumes membranous, glabrous or with scattered weak hairs, first glume ovate, acute, 3.5-4 mm long, 1-nerved, scabrous on the nerve, second glume ovate, acuminate, 6.5-8.5 mm long, 3-nerved, scabrous on nerves, scaberulous between the nerves; sterile lemmas subequal, oblong, 2.5-3.2 mm long, apex bifid, brownish appressed hirsute, first lemma awned from slightly below apex, the awn straight, ca. 6 mm long, the second lemma awned from near base, the awn geniculate, ca. 6 mm long; fertile floret 2-2.5 mm long, enclosed within the 2 sterile lemmas, lemma reddish to dark brown, glossy, broadly ovate, glabrous, acute; palea membranous, narrow, obtuse, ca. 1.5 mm long, wholly enclosed by the lemma.  Caryopsis linear, 1.3-2.5 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1498, 1904).

Description of Anthoxanthum odoratum from Kew Gardens' GrassBase

Habitat/ecology:  This small, perennial bunchgrass forms extensive ground cover in open mesic and dry habitats at moderate to high elevations. It invades disturbed areas, preventing the reestablishment of native species.  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in pastures, disturbed areas in wet forest, and sometimes subalpine shrubland, 840-2,140 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1498, 1904).

Propagation:  Seed, dispersed by wind, water and animals.

Native range:  Eurasia; widely naturalized in temperate North America (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1498, 1904).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: F.C. Allen 315 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1498)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: T. Flynn 2179 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1498)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1498)
Voucher cited: Munro s. n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Snow, Neil/Davidse, Gerrit (2011) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: U.S. Army 123 (BISH 738557)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 340)
"Roadsides, waste land, pasture and tussock grassland, in scrub or forest clearings, sometimes in boggy, or sandy or rocky, stony ground; sea level to subalpine".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 162)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 141)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 141)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Meadows
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 28)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 191)
subsp. odoratum, subsp. alpinum (A. & D. Love) Hult. and subsp. glabrescens Celakovsky
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 340)
"Roadsides, waste land, pasture and tussock grassland, in scrub or forest clearings, sometimes in boggy, or sandy or rocky, stony ground; sea level to subalpine".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Meadows
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 141)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Often introduced as a pasture grass.

Control:  Control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical:  "Manual control includes hand pulling of individual plants and mowing.  Mowing should be carried out early in the season, before seeds are ripened".

Chemical:  "The herbicide dalapon has proved to be effective for control of this grass"  (Weber, 2003; p. 49).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 7 MAY 2017.