Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Annona glabra
L., Annonaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Annona palustris L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yuan hua fan li zhi

English: alligator apple, bullock's heart, corkwood, cow-apple, mangrove anona, monkey-apple, pond apple

Fijian: kaitambo, kaitambu, uto ni bulumakau, uto ni mbulumakau

French: annone des marais, cachiman cochon, corossol de la mer, corossolier des marais

Spanish: anón liso, anona, bagá, cayuda, corcho, palo bobo

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree (2-) 3-8 (-12) m high, the trunk narrowly buttressed at the base; leaves oblong-elliptical, acute or shortly acuminate, 7-15 cm long, up to 6 cm broad; pedicel curved, expanded distally; sepals 4.5 mm long, 9 mm broad, apiculate; outer petals valvate, ovate-cordate, cream-colored with a crimson spot at base within, 2.5-3 cm long, 2-2.5 cm broad; inner petals subimbricate, shortly clawed, 2-2.5 cm long, 1.5-1.7 cm broad, whitish outside, dark crimson within; stigmas sticky, deciduous; fruit up to 12 cm long, 8 cm broad, yellow outside when ripe, pulp pinkish-orange, rather dry, pungent-aromatic; seeds light brown, 1.5 cm long, 1 cm broad"  (Adams, 1972; p. 278).

Habitat/ecology:  "A semi-deciduous tree, usually 3-6 m tall.  Both the fruit and the seed float (an adaptation which facilitates dispersal in flowing water).  The hard seeds can remain viable for considerable periods in either fresh, brackish or sea water. A. glabra can behave as a 'freshwater or brackish water mangrove' as it can survive root immersion at high tide and prolonged freshwater flooding.  Seedlings require ample soil moisture and sunlight to survive.  Such conditions can be expected on riverbanks and in naturally open wetlands or disturbed wetlands and rainforests"  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 139).

Propagation:  Fruits and seeds spread by water, pigs and birds.

Native range:  Fresh and brackish wetlands in tropical North, Central and South America and coastal West Africa (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 139).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 75-76)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 614706)
Taxon name on voucher: Annona glabra L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Error? Presence questionable.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 52)
Voucher cited: Kanehira 872 (NY)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 39)
Vouchers cited: Degener 15069, Smith 9343, DA 10117, DA 7566, DA 10931
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 91)
In mangroves.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 129143)
Taxon name on voucher: Annona glabra L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 129144)
Taxon name on voucher: Annona glabra L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 75-76)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11728 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 93)
"Wet lowlands"
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 75-76)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.-Y. Meyer 584 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 93)
"Wet lowlands"
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 75-76)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 75-76)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 11069 (PAP)
Naturalisée.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Vouchers cited: Lorence 5570 (BISH 533596, BISH 533603), Weissich 131 (BISH 638515)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimen)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Annable 3875 (BISH 660358)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Suprin in MacKee 41832
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Robelin in Veillon 5357 (NOU)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 14)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Voucher: Lorence 9921 (PTBG, BNM)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 214)
Taxon name on voucher: Annona glabra
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
Potential invader.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 30)
Annona cf. glabra
Perhaps naturalized.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 139)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated; 100-200 m.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 39)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated; 100-200 m.
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 27)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Naturalized and sometimes exhibiting invasive behavior in French Polynesia; widely naturalized in Fiji. A "weed of national significance" in Australia.  In north Queensland, Australia, it forms dense monotypic stands which displace native vegetation. A weed species in Vietnam. (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 139).

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull seedlings and saplings

Chemical:  Cut larger trees and treat the stumps with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 47).

Additional information:
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia (PDF format).
Weed Management Guide from the Government of Australia. (PDF format).

Additional online information about Annona glabra is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Annona glabra as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Annona glabra may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Adams, C. D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. 848 pp.

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 129143 (Degener, O. 15069).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 129144 (Smith, A.C. 9343).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 614706 (Sykes, W.R. 3018).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Florence, J. 2004. Flore de la PolynÚsie franšaise, Vol. 2. Paris. IRE Editions, Publications Scientifiques, Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 41. 503 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Humphries, S. E./Stanton, J. P. 1992. Weed assessment in the wet tropics world heritage area of north Queensland. Report to The Wet Tropics Management Agency. 75 pp. plus plates.

Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. 2013. Annotated Checklist of Cultivated Plants of Hawai‘i (online searchable database).

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 1998. Mécanismes et gestion des invasions biologiques par des plantes introduites dans des forêts naturales à Hawai‘i et Polynésie Française: une étude de cas [Mechanisms and management of biological invasions by alien plants in Hawaiian and French Polynesian natural forests: a case study]. Dèlégation à la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie Française. Unpublished report.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2008. Voucher specimen #PTBG214(David H. Lorence 9921).

Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. 2003. Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific Region: National Reports & Directory of Resources. Global Invasive Species Programme, Cape Town, South Africa. 185 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 2. 810 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Sykes, Bill. 0. Bill Sykes, pers. com.

Thaman, R. R./Tuiwawa, M. 1999. Invasive, potentially invasive and adventive alien plant species of Fiji: a preliminary analysis of their status and measures required for their control. Preliminary draft discussion paper prepared for the SPREP Regional Invasive Species Strategy for the South Pacific Islands Region: Regional Workshop, Nadi, Fiji, 26 September-1 October 1999.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Waterhouse, Barbara. 0. Barbara Waterhouse, pers. com.

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 9 AUG 2011.