Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Annona glabra
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Annonaceae


High risk, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment). Annona palustris L.

Chinese: yuan hua fan li zhi

English: alligator apple, bullock's heart, corkwood, cow-apple, mangrove anona, monkey-apple, pond apple

Fijian: kaitambo, kaitambu, uto ni bulumakau, uto ni mbulumakau

French: annone des marais, cachiman cochon, corossol de la mer, corossolier des marais

Spanish: anón liso, anona, bagá, cayuda, corcho, palo bobo

"Tree (2-) 3-8 (-12) m high, the trunk narrowly buttressed at the base; leaves oblong-elliptical, acute or shortly acuminate, 7-15 cm long, up to 6 cm broad; pedicel curved, expanded distally; sepals 4.5 mm long, 9 mm broad, apiculate; outer petals valvate, ovate-cordate, cream-colored with a crimson spot at base within, 2.5-3 cm long, 2-2.5 cm broad; inner petals subimbricate, shortly clawed, 2-2.5 cm long, 1.5-1.7 cm broad, whitish outside, dark crimson within; stigmas sticky, deciduous; fruit up to 12 cm long, 8 cm broad, yellow outside when ripe, pulp pinkish-orange, rather dry, pungent-aromatic; seeds light brown, 1.5 cm long, 1 cm broad"  (Adams, 1972; p. 278). "A semi-deciduous tree, usually 3-6 m tall.  Both the fruit and the seed float (an adaptation which facilitates dispersal in flowing water).  The hard seeds can remain viable for considerable periods in either fresh, brackish or sea water. A. glabra can behave as a 'freshwater or brackish water mangrove' as it can survive root immersion at high tide and prolonged freshwater flooding.  Seedlings require ample soil moisture and sunlight to survive.  Such conditions can be expected on riverbanks and in naturally open wetlands or disturbed wetlands and rainforests"  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 139). Fruits and seeds spread by water, pigs and birds. Fresh and brackish wetlands in tropical North, Central and South America and coastal West Africa (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 139).
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 75-76)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 614706)
Taxon name on voucher: Annona glabra L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 77)
Error? Presence questionable.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 52)
Voucher cited: Kanehira 872 (NY)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 39)
Vouchers cited: Degener 15069, Smith 9343, DA 10117, DA 7566, DA 10931
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 91)
In mangroves.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 129143)
Taxon name on voucher: Annona glabra L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 129144)
Taxon name on voucher: Annona glabra L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 75-76)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11728 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 93)
"Wet lowlands"
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 75-76)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.-Y. Meyer 584 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 93)
"Wet lowlands"
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 75-76)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 75-76)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 11069 (PAP)
Naturalisée.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Vouchers cited: Lorence 5570 (BISH 533596, BISH 533603), Weissich 131 (BISH 638515)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimen)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Annable 3875 (BISH 660358)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Suprin in MacKee 41832
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Robelin in Veillon 5357 (NOU)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 14)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Voucher: Lorence 9921 (PTBG, BNM)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 214)
Taxon name on voucher: Annona glabra
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
Potential invader.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 30)
Annona cf. glabra
Perhaps naturalized.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 139)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated; 100-200 m.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 39)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated; 100-200 m.
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 27)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized and sometimes exhibiting invasive behavior in French Polynesia; widely naturalized in Fiji. A "weed of national significance" in Australia.  In north Queensland, Australia, it forms dense monotypic stands which displace native vegetation. A weed species in Vietnam. (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 139).

Physical:  Hand pull seedlings and saplings

Chemical:  Cut larger trees and treat the stumps with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 47).


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