Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Annona cherimola
Mill., Annonaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  Low risk, score: -4 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Annona pubescens Salisb.; Annona tripetala Aiton

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: mao ye fan li zhi

English: cherimoya, custard-apple

French: chérimolier

Hawaiian: kelemoio, momona

Spanish: chirimoya, chirimoyo

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Rounded shrub to 5 m tall; young twigs persistently ferruginous-tomentose with very fine, short hairs; petioles stoutish, 6-10 mm long, densely tomentose; leaf blades mostly elliptic but occasionally lanceolate or broadly elliptic, cuneate to rounded at base, obtuse or acute at apex, 5-15 cm long, 3-10 cm wide, finely and softly velutinous-pubescent with tangled, subappressed, simple hairs, these ferruginous on very young growth and along veins on undersurface, soon glabrate above, the blades much paler beneath than above; flowers opposite leaves, solitary or in pairs, the petioles ferruginous-tomentose, 8-12 mm long; buds 15-18 mm long, 5-8 m broad at base, lanceolate-oblong, tomentose outside; sepals triangular, 2-4 mm long, tomentose; petals linear, 1.5-2.5 cm long at anthesis, ferruginous-tomentose on outer surface, greenish within; stamens many; fruit ovoid to globose, 5-10 cm in diameter, greenish to greenish-purple or nearly black, the surface with rounded protuberances and with U-shaped areoles, or sometimes nearly smooth; fleshy arils white, slightly acid, edible; seeds oblong, 10-12 mm long, about half as wide, smooth, black"  (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 521-522).

Habitat/ecology:  Cultivated and escapes.  "It requires cooler temperatures to prosper" (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 109), so probably not a threat on most Pacific islands.

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Probably native to the Andes of  Peru and Ecuador, where it thrives at elevations of 4,500-6,500 feet"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 109).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 45)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 473-474, 520, 551)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 68)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40850)
Taxon name on voucher: Annona cherimola
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 78)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2002) (p. 4)
Vouchers cited: O. Degener 7276 (BISH), J.F. Rock 12961 (BISH), A.S. Hitchcock 14507 (BISH), W. Takeuchi 5777 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: MacKee 23423
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (pp. 75-76)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 111)
"Forming large thickets from original planted stock in old orchards".
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Widely cultivated; 100-300 m.
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Loja [Andes]
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
[Andes]
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 13)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Widely cultivated; 100-300 m.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 17 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 11 JUL 2008.