Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Angiopteris evecta
(G.Forst.) Hoffm., Marattiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Polypodium evectum G. Forst.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: giant fern, king fern, king's fern, mule's-foot fern

Kosraean: kalme

Kwara‘ae: gwaegwae

Maori (Cook Islands): ne‘e

Niuean: palatao

Palauan: bersarm, demarm, dermarm

Pohnpeian: paiwed, paiwed pwetepwet, payuit, umpai

Samoan: nase, nase, oli oli, oli oli

Tahitian: nahe

Tongan: hulufe tano, hulufe vai, ponga

Yapese: mong, mongmong

Habit:  fern

Description:  "Rhizome forming a massive, somewhat spherical trunk to ca 60-90 cm high and 45 cm diameter  Stipes thick and fleshy, to ca 2 m long, the base swollen and bearing two flat, rounded, dark brown, leathery, stipule-like outgrowth ca 5-10 cm long.  Lamina 2- to 4-pinnate, glabrous, very large and spreading, to over 7 m long and to ca 2.5 m broad, the pinnae ca 30 cm wide; ultimate segments shortly stalked, commonly (8-) 10-13 (-20) cm long, (0.8-) 1.5-2.5 (-4) cm wide, linear, the base unequally wedge-shaped to more or less rounded, especially on the basal side, the margins shallowly toothed, often with a long, narrow, acuminate, more deeply toothed apex.  Veins close, making a wide angle with the midrib, free, simple or once forked near the base, with pale, translucent false-veins running between them for a short distance from the margin.  Sori without indusia, consisting of 3-7 pairs of sporangia clustered along the lateral veins near the margin"  (Andrews, 1990; pp. 16-17).

Habitat/ecology:  Moist forest and rainforest at low to middle elevations.  In Hawai‘i, "naturalizing freely in the Lyon Arboretum and other local botanical gardens, apparently spreading by spores shed from cultivated plants into nearby areas.  This fern appears to naturalize freely in wet valleys.  It soon overtops the surrounding native and exotic vegetation, quickly spawning swarms of offspring downslope/downwind of the parent plant"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 39).

Propagation:  Wind-borne spores.

Native range:  Australia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; also cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island native
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 15)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 27795)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta (Forst. f.) Hoffm.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island native
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 15)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island native
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Garber 579 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9157)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island native
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 121)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1993) (voucher ID: PTBG 44444)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31623 (BISH, US, Fo)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 56)
Vouchers cited: CBM-BS-59015, CBM-BS-59100
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1982) (p. 30)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 6)
Vouchers cited: Hosokawa 7941 (BISH), Kanehira 2176 (US), Falanruw 1931 (US), Anderson 427 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58968
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1982) (p. 30)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1711 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1982) (p. 30)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1982) (p. 30)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 6)
Vouchers cited: Hosokawa 7894, Evans 2370 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L, P)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1982) (p. 30)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1984) (voucher ID: PTBG 38666)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta (G.Forst.) Hoffm.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island native
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1982) (p. 30)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2005) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Flynn 7195 (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 42610)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 36)
Vouchers cited: Kanehira 719 (NY), Glassman 2310 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 25)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 3 (NY, PTBG), E. Albert 75 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 3960 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 3989 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 174 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 13 (NY, BISH, PTBG), T.W. Flynn 6205 (PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 58399 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 60485 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2310 (BISH), D. Shearard 22 (BISH), F. Sohl 55 (NY, PTBG), M. Takamatsu 927 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1982) (p. 30)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 35768)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta (G.Forst.) Hoffm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 34572)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta (G.Forst.) Hoffm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 26692)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta (Forst. f.) Hoffm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2006) (voucher ID: PTBG 47510)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 48640)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2008) (p. 2)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1982) (p. 30)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 7427 (PAP), J. Florence , D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9551 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: L. Dunn 336 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 41041)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 41765)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 74)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11554 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 63062 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 2787)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 3838)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.-F. Butaud & F.A. Jacq 54 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 74)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: P. Sanchez-Baracaldo 157 (PAP), J. Florence 2096 (PAP), J. Florence 4786 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 3695)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 74)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg & M.-H. Sachet 63183 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 74)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 8259 (PAP), J. Florence 8777 (PAP), M. Chaine 39 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5698 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11361 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.-F. Butaud 629 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5549 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1982) (p. 30)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R. (2006) (p. 18)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. (2000) (p. 24)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R. (2006) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood & T. Menard 10933 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R. (2006) (p. 18)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R. (2006) (p. 18)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2010) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H90816 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R. (2006) (p. 18)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Voucher cited: Neal s.n. (BISH 789)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre native
Brownlie, G. (1969) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Balansa 80, Boudouin s.n. s.loc., Franc 20 B, Guillaumin et Baumann 10110
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1979) (voucher ID: PTBG 2744)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta
Niue
Niue
Niue Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 28)
Vouchers cited: CHR 150627, CHR 150628
Niue
Niue
Niue Island native
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 16)
As Angiopteris commutata Presl. Voucher cited: Yuncker 9772 (BISH)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1982) (p. 30)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 991)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta (Fosrt. F.) Hoffm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1982) (p. 30)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) native
Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. (1980) (p. 1)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 30)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 6198)
Taxon name on voucher: Angiopteris evecta
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 46)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island native
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. Field notes.)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island native
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 19)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15331, Hürlimann 219
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island native
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. Field notes.)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 347)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island native
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 429
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 13)
Vulnerable
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 10 FEB 2005 and was last updated on 21 FEB 2013.