Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Andropogon bicornis
L., Poaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment).

Common name(s): [more details]

English: West Indian foxtail grass

French: herbe panache

Spanish: barbas de indio, cola de caballo, cola de cabos, cola de venado, rabo de zorro, zacate cabezón, zacaton

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Habit: Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; 150-250 cm long; 4-6 mm diam. Culm-internodes thick-walled. Culm-nodes glabrous. Lateral branches ample. Leaf-sheaths keeled. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; 1-1.2 mm long. Leaf-blades 25-50 cm long; 2-6 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Inflorescence: Synflorescence compound; paniculate (obovate); dense. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Spatheole linear; 3-4 cm long. Racemes 2; paired; 2.5-3.5 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; plumose on surface; plumose on margins. Rhachis hairs 6-8 mm long. Rhachis internodes filiform; 2.5-3 mm long. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform; with simple rim. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; 3-4 mm long; plumose; with 6-8 mm long hairs. Sterile spikelets: Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels, or rudimentary (except terminal); 0-1 mm long. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 3-3.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus oblong; 0.2 mm long; pilose; base obtuse; inserted. Glumes: Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 times length of spikelet; membranous; 2-keeled; keeled laterally. Lower glume intercarinal veins absent. Lower glume surface concave. Upper glume lanceolate; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume muticous. Florets: Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 2-2.4 mm long; hyaline; 0 -veined; ciliate on margins. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 1.6-2.2 mm long; hyaline; without keel. Lemma apex entire; acute; muticous. Palea absent or minute. Flower: Anthers 3; 0.5-0.7 mm long; purple. Fruit: Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 1.6-2 mm long" (World Grass Descriptions).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  West Indies, Mexico, Central and South America (GRIN)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Snow, Neil/Lau, Alex (2010) (pp. 46-47)
Previously misidentified. Vouchers cited: L. Ishii s.n. (BISH 635082), T. Flynn et al. 2679 (BISH), T. Flynn et al. 2717 (BISH), T. Flynn et al. 3547 (BISH), W.L. Wagner & R. Hanford 6278 (BISH), D.R. Herbst 9773 (BISH), C. Imada et al. 99-10 (BISH), C. Imada 2001-58 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 16)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Rivers, Julie (2004) (p. 2)

Comments:  This species is listed as a noxious weed excluded from importation into Hawaii.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 26 NOV 2006 and was last updated on 30 DEC 2011.