Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Anacardium occidentale
L., Anacardiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk, score: 0 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Anacardium microcarpum Ducke

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: casue, kasoe, kasoy

Chinese: yao guo

English: cashew, cashew nut

French: acajou à pommes, anacardier, cajou, pomme de cajou, pommier cajou

Maori (Cook Islands): kātū

Samoan: ‘apu ‘initia, ‘apu ‘initia

Spanish: anacardo, cajuil, marañōn, merey

Tongan: ‘apu, kesiu, telie p#257;pālangi

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Spreading evergreen tree to 12 m, the trunk to 5 dm thick or more, with milky, acrid juice; petioles 6-15 mm long; leaf blades (9) 10-20 cm long, 5-10 cm wide, oblong-oval or obovate to oblanceolate, rounded or emarginate apically, prominently marked with 9-14 pairs of widely spreading lateral veins; panicles subcorymbose, terminal, 10-25 cm long, the branches widely spreading, naked except for the terminal cymose flower clusters; flowers white, becoming yellow pink, ca 8 mm wide; fruit curved-reniform, more or less fingerlike, or heart-shaped, ca 2.5 cm long, with the seed edible when roasted, borne atop a fleshy receptacle, 5-9 cm long, yellow or red, edible when ripe" (Welsh, 1998; pp. 28-29).

Habitat/ecology:  Prefers fertile, moist soils but is well adapted to other conditions. Most common in subtropical climates. (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 138).

Propagation:  Seed. Can be dispersed by fruit bats.

Native range:  Tropical America; in widespread cultivation.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 32)
Uncommon
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 145)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 13)
Naturalized.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 84)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 13)
Naturalized.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 128658)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 145)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 451)
Vouchers cited: DA 16968, DA 13499
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 15279)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 128661)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 451)
Vouchers cited: Tothill 457, DA 9547, DA 12255
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 15278)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 7325 (PAP), J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9475 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 601904)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000296)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7298 (PAP)
Naturalisé dans les ravins.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 4)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 4)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 22324)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 28-29)
Vouchers cited: Moore 592, BRY 25757a
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 11887 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 14076)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 658255)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 4)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5350 (PAP).
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492251)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 28-29)
Vouchers cited: BRY 25975, BRY 25982
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3274 (PAP)
Se naturalise rapidement à Papeete.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493286)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 389)
Rare.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 145)
Vouchers cited: Merrill 105, Stafford 182
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 128662)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 128663)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 128664)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 196)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 196)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 14)
Vouchers cited: Ledroit in MacKee 40194, MacKee 41711
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170300, CHR 170301
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 22)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 20)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 469)
In the settled areas at low and medium altitudes, cultivated and in places naturalized or at least persistent after abandoned cultivation.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 69)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 65)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28751)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 439310)
Taxon name on voucher: Anacardium occidentale L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 46)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 64)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 138)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 13)
Casual
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 103)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Mohéli (Mwali) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 8)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 45)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2666

Comments:  Naturalizing around a planted tree on Ma‘uke, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Naturalized north of Broome in Western Australia (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 138).

Reported to be invasive in South Africa, Mozambique, and Jamaica (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 138).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 5 NOV 2011.