Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Ammannia coccinea
Rottb., Lythraceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: astetema

Chinese: chang ye shui xian cai

English: purple ammania, red stem, toothcup, valley redstem

Spanish: amania escarlata, palo de agua

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Stems ascending or spreading 3-5 dm long, spongy when growing in water.  Leaves linear-oblong to linear-lanceolate, 2-10 cm long, 0.8-1.5 cm wide, base truncate-auriculate.  Flowers 2-5, subsessile, peduncles about as long as pedicels; floral tube 2.5-5 mm long, enlarging in fruit; petals purple to pink, 1-2 mm long, caducous; style persistent, 1.5-3 mm long.  Capsules ca. 4 mm long, enclosed by the persistent floral tube when mature"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 865).

"Low herbs, slightly woody at root and stem-base, stems erect, to 50 cm tall; leaves linear-lanceolate, 2-5 cm long, 3-6 mm wide, acute, the base sessile and somewhat auriculate-clasping; flowers axillary in fascicles, pedicels scarcely 1 mm long; calyx 2.5 mm  long, elongating to 4 mm in fruit; petals pink, obovate, very tiny; stamens very slightly exserted; capsule globose, enclosed by calyx, 3-4 mm thick"  (Stone, 1970; p. 434).

Habitat/ecology:  "Annual herbaceous aquatic plant commonly found in rice fields and poorly drained soils"  (Cardenas et al., 1972; p. 219). In Hawai‘i, "sparingly naturalized in wet sites such as taro paddies"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 865).  In Guam, "in ditches, grassy marshes, etc."  (Stone, 1970; p. 434).

Propagation:  Seed (Cardenas et al., 1972; p. 219).

Native range:  United States, Mexico, Central America and northern South America (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 180)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 49)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 434)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 180)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 49)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 865)
Voucher cited: Herbst 5949 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 865, 1884)
Misidentified as Ammannia auriculata Willd.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 865, 1884)
Misidentified as Ammannia auriculata Willd., voucher cited: Hosaka s.n. (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Naturalized. S.W. Taiwan.
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 22)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 26 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 1 MAR 2007.