Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Amaranthus hybridus
L., Amaranthaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Amaranthus incurvatus Timeroy ex Gren. & Godr.; Amaranthus patulus Bertol.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: lü sui xian

English: green amaranth, green pigweed, hybrid amaranth, prince's feather, red root, slim amaranth, smooth amaranth, smooth pigweed, spleen amaranth, wild cabbage

Fijian: ndriti

Japanese: hoso-ao-geito

Spanish: amaranto, bledo, blero, crista de galo, lero, moco de pavo, penacho, quelite, visnaga, yuyo, yuyo hembra

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Monoecious annual herbs 10-20 (-30) dm tall; stems often tinged reddish, erect, occasionally ascending, branched, striate, glabrous to moderately pubescent with multicellular hairs.  Leaves lanceolate to ovate or rhombic, blades 3-19 (-30) cm long, 1.5-8 (-12) cm wide, lower surface glabrous or sparsely pilose along the margins and veins, petioles 0.5-15 cm long.  Flowers yellowish green, reddish, or purple, in axillary and terminal spikes, both sexes mixed throughout the spikes, bracts and bracteoles deltate-ovate, tipped with a long, pale brown to reddish awn; sepals 5, 1.5-3.5 mm long, lanceolate or oblong, apex acute, often awn-tipped, sometimes the apex of pistillate flowers blunt, only the midrib green; stigmas (2) 3.  Fruit subglobose to ovoid, sometimes with a short, inflated or narrow and smooth neck below base of style, 2-3 mm long, dehiscent with a circumscissile lid, the lid smooth.  Seeds black, sometimes shiny, compressed, 0.8-1.3 mm long, faintly reticulate near the margins."  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 188)

Subsp. hybridus: "The bracteoles of the pistillate flowers are usually 1.5-2 times longer than the sepals and the fruit has a distinct inflated neck" (Wagner et al.,1999; p. 188).

See also A. cruentus.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "sparingly naturalized at low elevations" (Wagner et al.,1999; p. 188).

Propagation:  "Reproducing from its many seeds, hundreds of which may be produced by each flowering branch, the plant makes rapid early growth, competing quickly with crops"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 114). The seeds are dispersed by birds.

Native range:  "Apparently indigenous to mild, moist regions from eastern North America to northern South America, the species has now acquired a broad distribution as a naturalized weed" (Smith, 1981; pp. 288-289).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 551)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Campéon Islet, Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinta Group
Pinta Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 288-289)
Voucher cited: Seemann 367
Garden escape.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 288-289)
Voucher cited: DA 12182
Garden escape.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 65)
subsp. cruentus (L.) A. Thellung var. paniculatus (L.) A. Thellung
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 65)
subsp. cruentus (L.) A. Thellung var. paniculatus (L.) A. Thellung
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 188)
subsp. hybridus
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 188)
subsp. hybridus
Sparingly naturalized.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 116-118)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 116-118)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) probably introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Farms, waste places, hillsides".
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 116-118)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 116-118)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 116-118)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 182)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 106)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 116-118)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 19)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 20 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 21 FEB 2013.