Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Amaranthus dubius
Mart. ex Thell., Amaranthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 14 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: spleen amaranth

Fijian: moca, toyala

French: bràde de Malabar, brède malabar

I-Kiribati: te moota, te mota, te uekeueke

Iloko: kauntong

Spanish: bledo, bledos malezas, pira

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Monoecious, erect annual herbs 4-9 (-15) dm tall; stems usually branched, conspicuously striate, pubescent, especially above, the hairs multicellular.  Leaves ovate to rhombic-ovate, blades 1.5-8 (-12) cm long, 0.7-5 (-8) cm wide, lower surface glabrous to sparsely pilose along the veins, petioles 0.6-5 (-8.5) cm long.  Flowers green, in axillary clusters in the lower part of the plant, in unbranched or rarely branched spikes above, the lower clusters of flowers entirely pistillate, staminate flowers only in the upper 1 cm of the spikes, rarely scattered among pistillate ones, bracts and bracteoles deltate-ovate, awn-tipped; sepals (4) 5, those of staminate flowers broadly lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, apex acuminate, only the midrib green, those of pistillate flowers oblong or spatulate-oblong, apex obtuse or sometimes acute, mucronulate; stigmas 3.  Fruit ovoid, with a short inflated neck below base of style, 1.5-1.8 mm long, dehiscent with a circumscissile lid, the lid rugulose near the line of dehiscence.  Seeds black, shiny, compressed, 1-1.2 mm long, inconspicuously reticulate"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 186).

Habitat/ecology:  "A weed of annual crops, plantations, village gardens, secondary vegetation. Cultivated as a green vegetable throughout its range." (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 19-20).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in disturbed sites"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 186).  In Fiji, "occurring near sea level as a weed in clearings, gardens, waste places, and along roadsides" (Smith, 1981; p. 288). In Papua New Guinea, "0-1300 m altitude in several unspecified districts" (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 19-20); "occurring as a weed in plantations, garden areas and secondary vegetation, at 0-1300 m altitude" (Womersley, 1978)..

Propagation:  "Copious quantities of seed produced" (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 19-20).

Native range:  Paleotropics (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 186). Tropical America; now occasionally found in the Old World tropics as a weed (Smith, 1981; p. 288).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31690 (US)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Española Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Darwin, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 31)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 31)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 288)
Voucher cited: Smith 303
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 288)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 66A, Greenwood 66
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 26-27)
Voucher cited: BRY 26049
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 58-60)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Amaranthus cf. dubius Thellung. Voucher cited: J. Florence 2814 (PAP)
Mauvaise herbe dans l'ombrière du jardin.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 58-60)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Sachet 2002 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Toau (Tovau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 58-60)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Toau (Tovau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 186, 188)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 186, 188)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 186, 188)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 32)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr, Starr, Medeiros & vonAllmen 040527-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 186, 188)
Voucher cited: Herat & Wirawan 212 (BISH)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 8)
Not seen after 1951. Voucher cited: Degener & Hatheway 21295
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 76)
Voucher: Imada 2003-176 (BISH 697787)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 77)
Voucher: Imada 2003-73 (BISH 697688)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 73)
Voucher: Imada 2003-28 (BISH 697643); Imada 2003-182 (BISH 697793)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 31)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1960) (p. 325)
Voucher cited: St. John 23702
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 24390 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 31)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 26503, Fosberg 31178, Herbst 8951. Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 9)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31178 (US), Fosberg 31185 (US), Fosberg 26503 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 69)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 61)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 84-85)
Vouchers cited: Thaman & Manner 22309 (SUVA), Thaman & Manner 22312 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 12165, MacKee 33708
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 19-20)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Womersley, John S., ed. (1978) (p. 24)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 19-20)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 54)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34938
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Sachet 887 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 9)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 34452 (US), Fosberg 34938 (US)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 18-19)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Lesser Sunda Islands
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 19-20)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 18-19)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 103)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   McIntyre, Guy (1991) (p. 11)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 146)
Voucher cited: Robertson 1096 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52034 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Desnoeufs Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 207)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: Todd 15
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 188)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Platte Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 159)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3012 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 167)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2363 (K)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 17 FEB 2007.