Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Alstonia macrophylla
Wall. ex G.Don, Apocynaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: da ye tang jiao shu

English: batino, devil-tree, hard alstonia, hard milkwood

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Leaves in whorls of three or mostly of four. Petiole 1-3 cm long.  Leaf-blade 10-50 cm long, 4-14 cm wide, widest in or above the middle, cuneate at the base, abruptly short-acuminate or more rarely obtuse at the apex, membranous, glabrous above, densely pubescent beneath at least when young, with rather distant lateral veins 0.6-2 cm apart from each other, including with midrib an angle of 60-70˚, herbaceous; dried leaf with the midrib faintly impressed on the upper side, prominent beneath; lateral veins scarcely raised above, slightly so beneath; reticulate venation not sculptured or slightly immersed on either side.  Cymes rather lax, arranged in a sessile umbel.  Pedicels much longer than the calyx.  Calyx-lobes up to 1 mm long, semicircular, puberulous to almost glabrous without.  Corolla glabrous without except for the ciliolate lobes; the tube 0.5-0.6 cm long, the lobes about as long as the tube, oblong, in bud overlapping to the right.  Merocarps pendulous, 30-45 cm long, 0.25-0.35 cm in diameter, glabrous when ripe.  Seeds acute but not acuminate at one end, obtuse at the other."  (Dassanayake, 1983; pp. 41-42)" Tree 3-4 m high (as noted in Fiji, but where indigenous to 20 m high), "with white corollas" (Smith, 1988; p. 78).

Description from the Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  "Introduced as a forest tree to Ceylon, Alstonia acrophylla rapidly became naturalized in the moist region up to an elevation of 1200-1500 m. Now it is one of the most prominent species of the secondary rain forest in the islands." (Dassanayake, 1983; pp. 41-42)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Southeastern Asia (from Thailand) into Malesia (to the Moluccas); cultivated elsewhere" (Smith, 1988; p. 78).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (p. 78)
Voucher cited: DA 11569
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Shannon, Robynn K./Herbst, Derral R. (1997) (pp. 51-52)
Vouchers cited: Takiue s.n. (BISH), Paul s.n. (BISH), Herbst & Hopper 9783a (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 12)
Vouchers cited: D. Souza s.n. (BISH), C. Daehler 1058 (BISH), C. Daehler 1090 (HAW)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: D. Souza s.n. (BISH 695057)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 33)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
S. Guangdong, S. Yunnan
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Kalimantan, Moluccas, Sumatra
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 12)
Naturalised
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 45)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Reported to be introduced into Fiji as a forestry tree (Smith, 1988; p. 78). Reported invasive in the Seychelles (Gerlach, 1996). Naturalized in Hawai‘i (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1857).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 20 FEB 2013.