Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Albizia lebbeck
(L.) Benth., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

More information needed, score: 4 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Other Latin names:  Acacia lebbeck L. (or Blanco); Mimosa lebbeck L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Carolinian: schepil kalaskas

Chamorro: kalaskas, mamis, trongkon kalaskas, trongkon-mames, tronkon mames

Chinese: kuo jia he huan

English: acacia-tree, Broome raintree, East Indian walnut, frywood, Indian siris, koko, lebbek, lebbek tree, powderpuff-tree, rain tree, raom tree, silver raintree, siris rain tree, siris tree, soros-tree, woman's tongue

Fijian: vaivai, vaivai ni vavalagi, vaivai ni vavalangi

French: bois noir

Hawaiian: ‘ohai

Japanese: birumanemu

Mangarevan: paina

Maori (Cook Islands): ‘arapitia

Samoan: tamaligi

Tahitian: amurumura

Tongan: kāsia

Yapese: gumorningabchey, ngumormingobchey

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees, deciduous, 8-12 m tall. Bark rough. Branchlets minutely pubescent, glabrous when old. Stipules caducous, small; leaf rachis with disklike glands near base and at base of pinnae, pubescent or glabrous; pinnae 2-4 pairs, 6-15 cm; leaflets 4-8 pairs, narrowly elliptic or slightly obliquely oblong, 2-4.5 x (0.9-) 1.3-2 cm, both surfaces glabrous or abaxially sparsely finely pubescent, main vein slightly closer to upper margin, apex obtuse or retuse. Peduncles axillary, 2 or more together, to 10 cm; corymbs 30-40-flowered. Flowers dimorphic, fragrant; pedicels 3-4 mm, puberulent. Calyx funnel-shaped, ca. 4 mm, puberulent, with short teeth. Corolla green-yellow, funnel-shaped, 7-8 mm; lobes deltoid-ovate. Stamens white or light yellow-green; tube shorter than corolla tube. Ovary glabrous, sessile. Legume straw-colored, strap-shaped, flat, 15-28 x 2.5-4.5 cm, remaining on trees long after ripening. Seeds brown, 4-12, ellipsoidal, ca. 10 x 6-7 mm; pleurogram parallel to margins of seed"  (Flora of China online).

"Medium to large tree with gray-brown bark; leaves bipinnate, the primary leaflets subopposite, 2-4 pairs; ultimate leaflets opposite, 6-8 pairs, oblong, slightly asymmetric, blunt, 2.5-4.5 cm long; flowers fragrant, in loose heads, pedicellate, the head 2-4 cm broad, whitish; stamens long-exserted; pods flat, thin, pale straw-colored when mature, 15-20 (rarely 30) cm long, 2.5-3.5 cm wide, few-seeded, the seeds bulging; pods drying, opening slightly or not"  (Stone, 1970; p. 297).

Habitat/ecology:  "Tropical hammocks, disturbed areas.  Native habitats of this nitrogen-fixing tree include sand river banks, savannas, forests and bushy places.  It is well adapted to poor soils and tolerates coastal salt spray"  (Weber, 2003; p. 36).  Often planted as a fast-growing shade tree.  Shallow root system does not resist typhoons well. 

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in low elevation, disturbed areas"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 644).  In Fiji, "cultivated or naturalized along roadsides or in patches of forest at elevations from near sea level to 200 m"  (Smith, 1985; p. 78). In New Caledonia, "est planté et souvent spontané" (MacKee, 1994; p. 77).

Propagation:  "The tree produces large amounts of seeds, and the rapidly growing seedling may reach high densities.  It suckers from the roots and once established, it forms dense stands"  (Weber, 2003; p. 36).

Native range:  Probably native in tropical mainland Asia; cultivated and naturalized in the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 6)
Some naturalization noted.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 54666)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438445)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 441704)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 659654)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 659657)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 22839)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Stone, Benjamin C. (1970)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 101)
"Secondary forest"
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 152866)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 659655)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 152860)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 152861)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 152867)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 96)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 152836)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 152837)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 152875)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 74)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2522 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 88)
Voucher cited: S.F. Glassman 2522 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 152876)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 152877)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 78)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 892
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 78)
Voucher cited: Smith 8123
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 152850)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: Berry 59, Smith 6874
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 152851)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 78)
Voucher cited: Smith 8123
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 78)
Vouchers cited: DA 16335 (DF 1283), DA 9281, DA 721, DA 11275, Gillespie 2064, Bryan 197
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 14452)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 32805)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 152848)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 152849)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: St. John 14542 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9511 (PAP)
"Planté en bordure de piste, paraît se naturaliser".
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 601892)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39549)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: M.-H. Sachet 1319 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4142 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 554237)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 41015)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 138-139)
Voucher cited: BRY 25439
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 33)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 47)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Sachet 980 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 138-139)
Vouchers cited: Moore 643, BRY 25420
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 63532 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 607258)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 138-139)
Voucher cited: Grant 3949
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2549 (PAP), J. Florence 2743 (PAP)
Planté, se naturalise.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492820)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493036)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493294)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5635 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553325)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 297)
Voucher cited: Stone 4246 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 152862)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 152863)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 152864)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 152868)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 152869)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 152870)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 644)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 644)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 7)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H70060 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 23)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H100510 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110713 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 644)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 644)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Souvent spontanée.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 77)
Vouchers cited: Grunow s.n. (W), Cribs 718, Däniker 655, MacKee 1990, MacKee 5476, MacKee 8034, MacKee 16596, MacKee 27595
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 152840)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 664576)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 209)
Shade tree.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 246)
Planted and probably native in some areas.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 45)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 50)
Infrequently elsewhere.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 129)
Voucher cited: Hülimann 321
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 403400)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 644)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-3)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 34)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Planted along roadsides and in gardens".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 130-131)
Roadside tree, ornamental, timber.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 11)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Planted along roadsides and in gardens".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 151)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 831 (K, US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (pp. 27, 33)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Mohéli (Mwali) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/±envahissant"
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 20)
"One tree seen in open flat at end of island". Voucher cited: Fosberg 36838 (US)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (pp. 7, 8)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 123)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2720
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Groupe d'Aldabra introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 170)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2375 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Hunsberger, 2001).

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and saplings

Chemical:  Cut larger trees and treat stumps with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 36).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 20 FEB 2013.