Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Aglaonema commutatum
Schott, Araceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Aglaonema elegans Engl.; Aglaonema marantifolium var. maculatum Hook. f.; Aglaonema warburgii Engl.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Chinese evergreen, Philippine evergreen, silver queen aglaonema

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Plants erect at first, later becoming ±decumbent; to 1.5 m tall.  Petioles mostly 6-25 (-35) cm long, commonly half as long to one and a half times as long as the blade; sheath membranous; blade oblong-elliptic or lanceolate, sometimes ovate or elliptic, mostly 12-35 (-44) cm long and 3-12 (-18) cm wide, usually about 2-4 times longer than wide; base somewhat asymmetric; apex acuminate; main lateral veins about 5-8; leathery.  Leaf blades often more or less variegated, with bars or spots.  Inflorescence: peduncles 1-6 together, as much as 15-20 cm long; spathe pale green (rarely almost white), mostly 4-9 cm long and 3-4 cm wide, shortly decurrent; stipe about 1 cm long; spadix cylindric, usually 2-6 cm long, included, bearing roughly 10-16 gynoecia in the pistillate part; staminate part commonly 1.5-5 cm long.  Fruits yellow to red, elliptico-obovoid, under 25 mm long" (Stone, 1970; p. 118).

"Stems erect, later decumbent, 0.7-6 feet long, 0.2-2.4 inches in diameter.  Leaf petiole 1-1.5 times as long a blade, usually green, blades usually narrowly oblong-elliptic to lanceolate, 2-3 times longer than wide, dark green to yellow-green, variegated ashy green around veins, base often unequal-sided.  Inflorescences 1-6 in axils; spathe oblong, pale green to white; spadix shortly stalked, slender, usually shorter than spathe.  Fruit ellipsoid to obovoid, yellow to bright red"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; pp. 596-597).

Habitat/ecology:  "The species naturalizes easily" (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 597).  In Hawai‘i (O‘ahu), naturalized in wet disturbed forest area  (Imada, 2007; p. 35).

Propagation:  Seed. "Perhaps spread by bird dispersal of its yellow to bright red fruit" (Imada, 2007; p. 34).

Native range:  "From the Philippines to northeastern Sulawesi, with some varieties restriced to parts of individual islands" (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 597).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2768 (PAP)
Ornementale assez répandue.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 118)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 89)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Imada, Clyde (2007) (pp. 34-35)
"Roadside in wet disturbed forest area, adjacent to large nursery". Voucher cited: G. Staples 1227 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 103)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 24)
"Ornamental potted plant".
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 17)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 7435, MacKee 41739
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 7)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 182-183)
Not uncommon in cultivation as an ornamental.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Celebes
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 11)
Casual
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 31)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 1, 6)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 15 DEC 2007 and was last updated on 21 MAY 2017.