Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Agapanthus praecox
Willd., Amaryllidaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Agapanthus orientalis F. M. Leight. [≡ Agapanthus praecox subsp. orientalis]

Common name(s): [more details]

English: African-lily, agapanthus

Habit:  herb

Description:  "A herb with flowering stalks of 75-100 cm height and with a thick and branched rhizome.  The broad to narrowly lanceolate leaves are 40-80 cm long, 3-5 cm wide and emerge from a rosette.  Inflorescences are large single umbels at the end of tall and hollow scapes of 50-100 cm length.  Umbels are dense and contain numerous blue or white flowers on pedicels of 5-8 cm length.  The blue to white perianth is 4-5 cm long and has dark midveins on the six segments.  Stamens are 4-4.5 cm long, the anthers are 3-5 mm long and yellow.  The fruit is an elongated ovoid capsule of 25-33 mm length, containing numerous black seeds that have a membranous wing and measure 7-8 mm in length"  (Weber, 2003; p. 25).

"Evergreen herb, usually forming dense clumps.  Leaves to 20, strap-shaped, 8-28 x to 2 inches, arching over, channeled.  Inflorescence a many-flowered umbel, ±dense, scape 16-40 inches tall, pedicels 2-5 inches long.  Flowers 1.5-2 inches long, white or blue; tepal bases shortly tubular, lobes spreading, thing-textured, margins ˝ruffled; stamen and style included.  Fruit ellipsoid, 3-angled, papery"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 678).

Habitat/ecology:  "Coastal sand dunes, grass- and heathland, riparian habitats, forests, rock outcrops.  Forms dense populations that crowd out native vegetation and reduce species richness.  After establishment, it quickly forms dense clumps, and scattered clumps collate into a single matrix dominated by this species"  (Weber, 2003; p. 25).  Has low water requirements  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 678).  "Tough, hardy, likes full sun, grows in almost any soil, almost anywhere.  Spreads rapidly down drainage lines, but will also grow in dry areas. Dense clumping roots displace all other vegetation" (Weeds of Blue Mountain bushland).

Propagation:  "Numerous small black shiny seeds are produced in a 5cm three-sided capsule, end of summer into autumn.  The underground structure (rhizome, poisonous) forms large continually extending clumps, and seed washes down waterways. Agapanthus is also frequently dumped on bushland edges"  (Weeds of Blue Mountain bushland).

Native range:  Cape region of South Africa  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 678).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 19)
Agapanthus sp.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1943) (voucher ID: BISH 120944)
Taxon name on voucher: Agapanthus praecox subsp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 511507)
Taxon name on voucher: Agapanthus praecox subsp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 120943)
Taxon name on voucher: Agapanthus praecox subsp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 41)
Rare or extirpated. Not seen since 1991.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 92)
subsp. orientalis (F. M. Leight.) F. M. Leight. (as Agapanthus orientalis Leighton)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Harley, Barbara (2009)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 47)
As Agapanthus orientalis. Voucher cited: R. Mason and N. T. Moar 2150 (CHR 81051)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
subsp. orientalis (F. M. Leight.) F. M. Leight.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "Dig out scattered plants. Dispose of corms and root fragments at a refuse transfer station or dry them out and burn them. Usually follow up with spraying."

Chemical:  "1. Spray: metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (4g) + glyphosate (200ml) + penetrant /10L water.  2. Cut down and paint stump: slash leaves close to ground, leave on site to rot down. Treat fresh bases with metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (1g) + glyphosate (50ml) + penetrant /L or a 3-5mm layer of Vigilant gel.

Plants often resprout and seed bank reinfests bared sites thickly, so follow up frequently until eradicated. At least 3-4 follow up treatments are needed. Begin eradication at top of banks and work down. Don't replant until after 2-3 treatments"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


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This page was created on 26 NOV 2008 and was last updated on 19 FEB 2013.