Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Adenia digitata
(Harv.) Engl., Passifloraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate; score: 2 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Adenia digitata)

Other Latin names:  Adenia angustisecta Burtt Davy; Adenia buchananii Harms; Adenia multiflora Potts; Adenia senensis Engl.; Adenia stenophylla Harv.; Modecca digitata Harv.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: wild granadilla

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Subherbaceous climber 0򈨵 m., arising from a tuber c. 10 6 cm. Stems usually annual, the fertile ones 1򉣻 mm. in diameter, greenish or greyish, and with inter-nodes 1򉣷2 cm. long. Leaf-lamina 418 317 cm., deeply (3)5-partiteor -foliolate, suborbicular or 5-gonal in outline, cordate at the base, membranous to coriaceous, green to yellowish-green above, yellowish, greyish or glaucous beneath, with 5 main nerves from the base; leaflets very variable in form and size, 1򉣷5 0754(7) cm., entire to deeply (2)35(10)-lobed, ovate or obovate to linear, rounded or acute sometimes mucronate at the apex, attenuated into a petiolule up to 2 cm. long, with 212 pairs of nerves and indistinct reticulation; petiole 19 cm. long. Glands of the lamina-base 2, 0򉣷5 mm. in diameter, on 2 separate auricles 12 mm. in diameter situated at the transition between petiole and lamina; other glands: 24, 0򉣷5 mm. in diameter, on the basal part of the lamina between the insertion of the leaflets, and 08 on each leaflet, irregularly scattered or submarginal. Stipules 13 mm. long, triangular, acute. Sterile tendrils up to 15 cm. long. Cymes (l)520(60)-flowered in male, 110-flowered in female, the flowers cream, yellow or orange, purplish-green at the base; peduncle stout, up to 7 cm. long; bracts and bracteoles 1򉣹 mm. long, lanceolate, acute; pedicels 115 mm. long in male flowers, 16 mm. long in female tendril 1, 210 cm. long. male flower: (14)2038 310 mm. (incl. the 312(15) mm. long stipe), tubular-infundibuliform; hypanthium (1)2𣠵 24(5) mm., cup-shaped; calyx-tube (5)812 mm. long; calyx-lobes (4)711 mm. long, ovate or oblong to lanceolate, obtuse, dentate-fimbriate at the margin; petals 612 (1)1򉣸5 mm., lanceolate, l(3)-nerved, dentate or fimbriate at the margin, inserted at the level of the corona or up to 5 mm. above it; corona consisting of short hairs, or rarely absent; stamen-filaments 35(912) mm. long, connate at the base for (15)2򉣽 mm., inserted on an androgynophore 1𣠵 mm. long; anthers 36 1(15) mm., curved inward, clinging together by the 02 mm. long papillate apicula; disk-glands 0򉣷5 mm. long; vestigial ovary 0򉣷 mm. long, on a gynophore up to 15 mm. long. hermaphrodite flowers 2025 mm. long. male flower: 1526 56 mm. (incl. the 27 mm. long stipe), tubular-infundibuliform; hypanthium 24 24 mm.; calyx-tube 48 mm. long; calyx-lobes 57 mm. long, ovate to oblong, obtuse, entire; petals 27 0351 mm., lanceolate to linear, acute, 1(3)-nerved, entire or serrulate to the apex, inserted at the same level as the corona or up to 4 mm. above it; corona as in male flower; disk-glands c. 1 mm. long; pistil 812 mm. long; gynophore 24 mm. long; ovary (4)56 (2)34 mm., ovoid to oblong; styles connate for 1𢹝 mm. at the base with arms 1𢹝 mm. long and stigmas 23 mm. in diameter, subreniform, woolly-papillate. Capsule (25)3𤈍(75) (15)2𣠵(4) cm., ovoid to ellipsoid, greenish-yellow, with smooth coriaceous pericarp up to 4 mm. thick, (10)2060-seeded. Seeds 58 4򉣼5 x 3 mm., ovoid to ellipsoid, pitted." (Flora Zambesiaca)

"Perennial climbing herb, usually dioecious, with a tuber up to 60 cm in diameter; stems annual, up to 3 m long. Leaves alternate, deeply (3)5-cleft or -foliolate, orbicular in outline; stipules narrowly triangular, 13 mm long, withering; petiole 19 cm long; lobes or leaflets ovate to obovate or linear, sometimes deeply lobed, 1.515 cm 14(7) cm, rounded to acute at apex, with glands at base. Inflorescence an axillary cyme, with a 210 cm long tendril between the branches, 120(60)-flowered; peduncle up to 7 cm long. Flowers usually unisexual, regular, 5-merous; pedicel up to 3 cm long, jointed about halfway; calyx tube about as long as lobes; petals free, included in calyx, usually toothed; male flowers up to 2.5 cm long, filaments of stamens fused in lower half and anthers curved inward and clinging together, ovary rudimentary; female flowers up to 2 cm long, ovary superior, ovoid to oblong, styles 3, fused at base, stigmas kidney-shaped, stamens rudimentary. Fruit a stalked ovoid to ellipsoid capsule 35.5(7.5) cm 24 cm, smooth, orange to yellow when ripe, many-seeded. Seeds ovoid to ellipsoid, flattened, 68 mm 4.56.5 mm 3 mm, brown, pitted." (PROTA)

Habitat/ecology:  "In savannas, woodlands, bush-lands, rocky places, grasslands, termitaria, on Kalahari sand and red clayey soils." (Flora Zambesiaca)

"Savannah, bushland, dry rocky or grassy localities, on termite mounds and along forest fringes, on stony, sandy, or clayish soils at elevations from sea-level up to 1,850 metres [299]." (Useful Tropical Plants)

Cultivation: "A plant of drier areas in the tropics, where it can be found at elevations up to 1,850 metres. The plant is not frost tolerant, being damaged at temperatures below 4° [423]. Succeeds in a sunny to lightly shaded position and a well-drained soil [385, 423]. ¶A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required." (Useful Tropical Plants)

"Adenia digitata occurs in savanna, bushland, dry rocky or grassy localities, on termite mounds and along forest fringes, on stony, sandy, or clayish soils from sea-level up to 1850 m altitude." (PROTA)

Propagation:  Propagation of Adenia digitata is by seed (Useful Tropical Plants).

Native range:  East tropical, south tropical, and southern Africa (Tanzania, Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland) (GRIN)

"Adenia digitata occurs from Tanzania south to South Africa and west to Angola." (PROTA)

Impacts and invaded habitats:  "KIND OF WEED: Health related (humans), health related (sheep), health related (goats) UNDESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS: Competitive (space, light, water, nutriment), competitive (smothering), poisonous, contaminant (seed), obstructive (access)" (Wells et al., 1986)

If you know of other invaded habitats or impacts, please let us know.

Presence:

Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Russia
Russia
Moscow cultivated
Korzun, Andrey (2012)
accessed 20180618, "From the collection of the Main Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences in Moscow (perennials plot)."
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Africa
Africa
Africa (east tropical) native
GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180617
Africa
Africa
Africa (south tropical) native
GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180617
Africa
Africa
Africa (southern) native
GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180617
Africa
Africa
Angola   GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180903
Africa
Africa
Angola cultivated
de Ruijter, A. (year unknown)
"Adenia digitata occurs from Tanzania south to South Africa and west to Angola." "Adenia digitata is collected, traded and grown as an ornamental by plant amateurs." accessed 20180903
Africa
Africa
Botswana   GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180903
Africa
Africa
Mozambique   GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180903
Africa
Africa
Swaziland   GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180903
Africa
Africa
Tanzania   GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180903
Africa
Africa
Tanzania cultivated
de Ruijter, A. (year unknown)
"Adenia digitata occurs from Tanzania south to South Africa and west to Angola." "Adenia digitata is collected, traded and grown as an ornamental by plant amateurs." accessed 20180903
Africa
Africa
Zaire native
cultivated
Wildflower Nursery (Zaire) (year unknown)
accessed 20180711
Africa
Africa
Zambia   GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180903
Africa
Africa
Zimbabwe   GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180903
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa (Republic of)   GRIN (year unknown)
accessed 20180903
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa (Republic of) cultivated
de Ruijter, A. (year unknown)
"Adenia digitata occurs from Tanzania south to South Africa and west to Angola." "Adenia digitata is collected, traded and grown as an ornamental by plant amateurs." accessed 20180903
World
World
Worldwide introduced
cultivated
Fern, Ken (2018)
accessed 20180618, "...cultivated as an ornamental worldwide."

Comments:  "Because of its impressive tuber, which can be partly above ground, it is cultivated as an ornamental worldwide [299]." (Useful Tropical Plants)

"Adenia digitata is collected, traded and grown as an ornamental by plant amateurs." (PROTA)

Control:  If you know of control methods for Adenia digitata, please let us know.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 3 SEP 2018.