Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Adenanthera pavonina
L., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: colales, culalis, kolales, kolales, kulales, kulalis

English: bead tree, Circassian bean tree, Circassian-tree, coral bean tree, coralwood, false jequirity, false red-sandalwood, false wiliwili, peacock flower-fence, Polynesian peanut, red bead tree, red beantree, red sandalwood tree, red-sandalwood, redwood, saga tree, sandal beadtree, sandalwood-tree, zumbictree

Fijian: lera, lere ndamu, pomea, vaivai, vaivai ni vavalangi

French: bois de condori, bois noir de Bourbon, bois noir rouge

Kosraean: metekam, metkam, metkem, mwetkwem

Kwara‘ae: tatarabebe

Maori (Cook Islands): kōviriviri, mata kōviriviri, pitipiti‘ō

Nauruan: bin

Niuean: pomea

Other: dschemudscha

Palauan: telengtúngd, telentundalel

Pohnpeian: kaikes

Samoan: lōpā, lopa, lōpā, lopa

Solomon Pijin: nodale

Spanish: árbol del coral

Tahitian: la‘au paina, lopa, paina, pitipitio papa‘a

Tongan: lopa

Tuvaluan: lopa

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Medium sized, deciduous tree; leaves with 2-6 pairs of pinnae; leaflets 6-12 pairs, 2-5 cm long, ovate, obtuse, glabrous, rather pale green, thin; flowers in slender, elongate racemes, borne in axils; flowers yellowish, sweet-fragrant; calyx 4-5-toothed; stamens 8-10; pods slender, linear, curved or contorted, dehiscent, thin, flattened, brown, smooth and shiny inside; seeds lenticular, suborbicular, hard, dark or bright red, about 8 mm wide, 10-12 per pod" (Stone, 1970; p. 296).

"A large deciduous tree, bark pale pinkish grey. Leaves bipinnate, up to 24 cm long, rachis c. 10-40 cm long, petiole c. 5-10 cm long, pinnae opposite, 2-6 pairs, c. 7-12 cm long, leaflets 7-15 pairs, sessile, alternate, obovate, l.5-4.0 cm long, 5-25 mm broad, margins slightly curved backwards, base unequal. Inflorescence axillary and terminal raceme, c. 7.5-15 cm long. Flower pedicellate, pedicel 3.5-4.0 cm long. Calyx 5, gamosepalous, 5 toothed, c. 1 mm long. Corolla pale yellow, c. 2.5-3 mm long, petals united at the base. Stamens 10, free, hardly exserted, anthers with a gland at the tip. Fruit a pod, curved, becomes coiled after dehiscence, 10-22.5 cm long, c.7-10 mm broad. Seeds many, bright red in colour, like beads, c. 7-8 mm wide"  (Flora of Pakistan online).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests and forest edges, woodland, coastal areas.  Displaces native trees and shrubs, preventing their regeneration and reducing diversity"  (Weber, 2003; p. 24).  "Grows on a variety of soils...and in seasonally and more permanently moist climates throughout the tropics" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 15). Trees produce large quantities of seed. It will grow on a variety of soils in moist and seasonally moist tropical climates.

In Fiji, "thoroughly naturalized along roads, in dry forest, and occasionally in dense forest, at elevations from near sea level to about 600 m" (Smith, 1985; pp. 56-57). In New Caledonia, "cet arbre de large répartition en Asie tropicale et le Pacifique est parfois planté sur la Grande-Terre. Il est beaucoup plus commun aux îles Loyauté où il se comporte plutôt comme indigène, paraissant au moins comme composant régulier de forêts peu dégradées" (MacKee, 1994; p. 77).

Propagation:  Seed. Ripened seed pods remain on the tree for long periods (Weber, 2003; p. 24).

Native range:  Southeastern Asia and Malaysia, but widely cultivated and introduced.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 4)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 41)
Abundant.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 41)
Abundant.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 4)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 41)
Abundant.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430517)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3386
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430197)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (pp. 4, 11)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island cultivated
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 91)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 152784)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 5)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 33)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 666205)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 614715)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 5)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 5)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Secondary and primary forest"
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 5)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 16)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2005) (p. 17)
Only a single adult and a few seedlings seen.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 152775)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Nukuoro Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Nukuoro Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 152779)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Secondary and primary forest"
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 74)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2759 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 88)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 130 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4171 (NY), F.R. Fosberg 26193 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2759 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 793 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 1021 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 1037 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 152772)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 152773)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 152774)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 152776)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43718)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Secondary and primary forest"
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (p. 204)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 3346 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 503156)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 56-57)
Vouchers cited: Garnock-Jones 805, Garnock-Jones 978
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 56-57)
Voucher cited: DA
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 56-57)
Vouchers cited: DA 327, DF 508, Damanu 147, Smith 9463, Smith 9350, DA 7008, DA 877, DA 11015
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 152780)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 152781)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1963) (voucher ID: PTBG 8396)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 583861)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 137-138)
Voucher cited: E. Murray 4
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 697271)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 137-138)
Vouchers cited: Moore 60, BRY 26094, BRY 26095, BRY 26661
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 639434)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 137-138)
Voucher cited: Setchell & Parks 251
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2826 (PAP)
Communément planté, se naturalise.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493266)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9053 (PAP)
Paraît naturalisé.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 560389)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 22)
Single tree. Voucher cited: Sachet 2079 (US)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 296)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 94)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 152777)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 659582)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 23798)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 23799)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Lorence 6413 (BISH, PTBG)
Locally naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim (2011) (p. 26)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 090623-01 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 108)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 136)
Voucher cited: Thaman & Manner 142 (SUVA)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438372)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou native
Nielsen, I./Prance, Ghillean T./Edmondson, John (1983) (pp. 8-10)
Vouchers cited: Balansa 2457, Däniker 2500b, MacKee 16048, MacKee 28305
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré native
Nielsen, I./Prance, Ghillean T./Edmondson, John (1983) (pp. 8-10)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2500, MacKee 25451
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) native
Nielsen, I./Prance, Ghillean T./Edmondson, John (1983) (pp. 8-10)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2500a
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre native
Nielsen, I./Prance, Ghillean T./Edmondson, John (1983) (pp. 8-10)
Vouchers cited: Baudouin 336 s.loc., Frqnc 1602 A, MacKee 16075, Pancher 682a
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 120)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170446, CHR 170447
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 4)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 33)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 10809, Whistler 10849
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 59)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9622 (BISH), Yuncker 9697 (BISH), Yuncker 10143 (BISH)
"Frequent in thickets and forested areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 9)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 43020)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 660692)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3111)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 91)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 152778)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 8, 79)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 210)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 252)
Occasionally cultivated.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 5)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 100416)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 152787)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 417892)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 5)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28528)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28602)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 152785)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 152786)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Ndeni (Santa Cruz) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 79349)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 43)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Soakai 328 (cult.)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 6)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 131)
"Throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 106)
"Secondary and primary forest".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 6)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Hotta 5178
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 131)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15510
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 152789)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 152791)
Taxon name on voucher: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 106)
"Secondary and primary forest".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 6)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 26)
Vouchers cited: Hotta 4544, Soakai 262 (cult.)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 131)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15113
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 131)
Voucher cited: Hülimann 655
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 106)
"Secondary and primary forest".
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 6)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 10, 34)
Considéré indigène ou d'introduction polynésienne à Wallis. C'est le seul arbre naturalisé dans les vestiges de forêt naturelle de bords de cratère et de crête, mais il ne forme pas actuellement de formations denses. L'espèce semble nécessiter une ouverture de la canopée (lisière, trouée, chablis) ou un sous-bois clair pour se régénérer.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 10)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 15, 102)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
potentiellement envahissant
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 20)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 181)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2841 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 149)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3123 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52162 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Gwynne & Wood 1031 (EA)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 51)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Groupe d'Aldabra uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 170)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
invasive
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 24)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  Very invasive in American Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2000). Widespread or becoming widespread on most Pacific islands where it is present.

Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Hunsberger, 2001).

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and saplings. 

Chemical: Stem injection with Roundup® or basal bark treatment with Garlon®. Because the dead trees still carry large numbers of seeds in their leafless canopies, and because of ungerminated seed in the ground, continued control is essential. (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 15).

Additional information:
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Information from the USDA Tropical Tree Seed Manual (PDF Format).
Information from the ASEAN Tropical Plant Database.

Additional online information about Adenanthera pavonina is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Adenanthera pavonina as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Adenanthera pavonina may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Australian Biological Resources Study. 2013. Flora of Australia Online. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Australian National Botanic Gardens. 2013. Australian plant common name database. Online resource.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1981. Voucher specimen #BNM3111(Timberlake, J. 3111).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 152777 (Thompson, J.B. 354).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 152785 (Eames, A.J. 157).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 152786 (Eames, A.J. 75).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 152784 (Diefenderfer, P. 17).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1931. Voucher specimen #BISH 152787 (Christophersen, E. 2471).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 152772 (Takamatsu, M. 793).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 152773 (Takamatsu, M. 1037).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 152774 (Takamatsu, M. 1021).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 152775 (Takamatsu, M. 404).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 152779 (Fosberg, F.R. 26193).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 152776 (Glassman, S.F. 2759).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 152778 (Fosberg, F.R. 32073).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 152780 (Smith, A.C. 9463).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 152781 (Smith, A.C. 9350).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 152789 (Yuncker, T.G. 15510).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 152791 (Yuncker, T.G. 15113).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 659582 (Fosberg, F.R. 46195).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 697271 (Smith, H.M. 130).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28528 (Bristol, M.L. 1996).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28602 (Bristol, M.L. 2070).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 660692 (Emmons, B. 120).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 79349 (Yen, D.E. 19793).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 100416 (Whistler, W.A. W90).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1974. Voucher specimen #BISH 417892 (Whistler, W.A. W 1704).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 430197 (Whistler, W.A. W 3386).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 430517 (Whistler, W.A. W 3738).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438372 (Fosberg, F.R. 58804).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 503156 (Stemmerman, L. 3511).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 493266 (Florence, J. 2826).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 560389 (Florence, J. 9053).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 583861 (Gagné, B.H. s.n.).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 614715 (Sykes, W.R. 466981).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 666205 (Sykes, W.R. 474794).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1994. Voucher specimen #BISH 639434 (Welsh, S.L. 26094).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

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Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

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Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

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Hunsberger, A. G. B. 2001. Invasive and banned plants of Miami-Dade County. U. of Fl. Extension. 3 pp.

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Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. 2002. Invasive/weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. In: Invasive species and their management. Micronesica Suppl. 6:61-65.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 4 JUL 2012.