Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Acacia melanoxylon
R.Br. ex Aiton, Fabaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Australian blackwood, black sally, black wattle, blackwood, blackwood acacia, Paluma blackwood, sally wattle, silver wattle, Tasmanian blackwood

French: Acacia à bois dur

Spanish: acacia negra, aromo australiano

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Unarmed, evergreen tree 8-15 (-20)m high; trunk straight, crown dense and pyramidal to cylindrical. Leaves: Phyllodes greyish turning dark dull-green, straight to slightly curved, with 3-7 prominent longitudinal veins and fine net-veins between; often bipinnate on young plants and coppice shoots. Flowers: Pale yellow, globular flower heads. Fruits: Reddish-brown pods, narrower than leaves, slightly constricted, twisted; seeds almost encircled by pinkish-red seed stalks" (Henderson, 1995; p. 56).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forest edges and gaps, grass- and heathland, scrubland, riparian habitats.  In the native range, the plant grows as a shrub or tree in rainforest margins and on stream banks.  Where invasive, it forms dense thickets, competing for water and light and replacing native vegetation"  (Weber, 2003; p. 17).  Native to rainforests in Australia, it is best adapted to cooler, moist sites. In Hawai‘i, widely planted as a forestry tree, now "naturalized throughout the Kokee State Park region of Kauai" and on East Maui (Lorence et al., 1995; p. 36).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter. Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed. Reproduces prolifically after fire. The tree coppices after damage and frequently suckers from the roots (Weber, 2003; p. 17).

Native range:  Australia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 35, 41)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 550)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 550)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 36)
Vouchers cited: D. Lorence et al. 5806 (PTBG, US), T. Flynn 1988 (PTBG), T. Croat 44962 (MO, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 640)
East Maui
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Meidell, J. Scott/Oppenheimer, H. L./Bartlett, R. T. (1998) (pp. 7-8)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Meidell & Oppenheimer 166 (BISH)
A serious threat to native shrubland.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 640)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank (2010) (p. 35)
Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H10810 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H10812 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 640)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 76)
Voucher cited: Gay in MacKee 42361
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australian Capitol Territory, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 708)
"Waste places, often coastal".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 132)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  A noxious weed species in South Africa (Henderson, 1995; p. 56). Has been used for forestry plantings in Hawai‘i, New Zealand and South Africa.

Control: 

Physical:  Pull or dig out small seedlings, making sure to remove roots.

Chemical:  Cut large plants and treat the cut stumps with herbicide.

Biological: Melanterius acaciae Lea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) introduced into South Africa and under evaluation (Julien, 1992; p. 72).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 20 MAR 2012.