Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Abies fraseri
(Pursh) Poir., Pinaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 3 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: balsam fir, eastern fir, Fraser balsam fir, Fraser fir, southern balsam, southern fir

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees to 25m; trunk to 0.75 m in diameter; crown spirelike. Bark gray, thin, smooth, with age developing appressed reddish scales at trunk base. Branches diverging from trunk at right angles; twigs opposite, pale yellow-brown, pubescence reddish. Buds exposed, light brown, conic, small, resinous, apex acute; basal scales short, broad, equilaterally triangular, glabrous, resinous, margins entire, apex sharp-pointed. Leaves 1.2-2.5 cm x 1.5-2 mm, 2-ranked, particularly in lower parts of tree, to spiraled, flexible; cross section flat, grooved adaxially; odor turpentine-like, strong; abaxial surface with (8-) 10 (-12) stomatal rows on each side of midrib; adaxial surface dark lustrous green, sometimes slightly glaucous, with 0-3 stomatal rows at midleaf, these more numerous toward leaf apex; apex slightly notched to rounded; resin canals large, ± median, away from margins and midway between abaxial and adaxial epidermal layers. Pollen cones at pollination reddish yellow or yellowish green. Seed cones cylindric, 3.5-6 x 2.5-4 cm, dark purple overlaid with yellowish green bracts, sessile, apex round; scales ca. 0.7-1 x 1-1.3 cm, pubescent; bracts exserted and reflexed over cone scales. Seeds 4-5 x 2-3 mm, body brown; wing about as long as body, purple; cotyledons ca. 5"  (Flora of North America online).

Habitat/ecology:  In the United States (native), "Mountain forests; 1500 m"  (Flora of North America online).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  United States (Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia); also cultivated (The PLANTS Database).

Presence:

Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
Randall, R. P. (2007) (p. 13)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 2 OCT 2012 and was last updated on 8 OCT 2012.