Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cirsium vulgare
(Savi) Ten., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 21 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 18.5 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Other Latin names:  Cirsium lanceolatum (L.) Scop.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yi ji

English: black thistle, boar thistle, bull thistle, common thistle, green thistle, Scotch thistle, Scotish thistle, spear thistle

French: chardon, chardon lancéolé, chardon vulgaire, cirse commun, gros chardon, piqueux

Hawaiian: pua kala

Japanese: Amerika-oni-azami

Rapa Nui: kaiore

Spanish: cardo lanceolado, cardo negro, negro

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Biennial herbs 5-15 dm tall; stems conspicuously spiny-winged from the decurrent leaf bases, spreading hirsute to arachnoid pubescent.  Leaves oblanceolate to elliptic, 10-20 (-40) cm long, 3-8 cm wide, upper surface with pungent bristles, lower surface arachnoid pubescent to hirsute, coarsely toothed to irregularly pinnatifid, the larger lobes toothed or lobed, base decurrent for the whole internode or the upper ones less so.  Heads several; involucre 2.5-4 cm high, 2-4 cm in diameter, sparsely arachnoid pubescent to woolly, the bracts spine-tipped, the spines 2-3.5 mm long; corollas purple, 26-36 mm long.  Achenes 3-5 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 287).

"Herbacée bisanuelle dressée atteignant 1 à 1,5 m de hauteur, reconnaissable à ses rosettes de grandes feuilles épineuses et ses tiges d’inflorescences dressées portant des capitules de fleurs de couleur rose à mauve, produites lors de la seconde année de croissance. Ses petits fruits secs (akènes) de couleur brun-doré sont munies d’un pappus plumeux leur permettant une dispersion sur de longues distances par le vent" (Meyer, 2008; p. 18).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grows on a wide variety of soil types and under various moisture conditions and can tolerate a salt content of 2%. It thrives best in deep fertile, well-aerated soil that does not become too hot, and is less common in light, dry soil types. "It is abundant wherever the soil crust has been disturbed, e.g. along roads, river banks, dam margins and fences, or on severely overgrazed and trampled grazing land. It does not do well on regularly cultivated lands" (Ecoport).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in relatively dry to mesic areas" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 287). In New Caledonia, "paru vers 1969 dans des localités dispersées de la partie Sud de la côte Ouest, infestant rapidement des superficies importantes. Sa progression paraît s'être ralentie depuis" (MacKee, 1994; p. 33).

Propagation:  "Propagation is by means of seed only. The hairy plume makes it more suitable for wind dispersal but since the silky hairs are easily detachable, this method of seed dispersal is not very effective. Some seeds are distributed by floodwaters, or they adhere to mud on vehicles, implements and animals. Birds eat the seeds and also collect the silken tassels for their nests. Birds, baboons and other animals spread the seed from open ground to the trees or bushes where they hide. Another method of dispersal is when seeds or fragments of the plant are gathered with the harvest and are then dispersed in bales of stock feed, hay or in grain crops.

"Seed remains viable for a long time. After germination seedlings grow slowly and are not very resistant to competition or shading by other plants." (Ecoport)

Native range:  "Indigenous to Europe including British Isles and Scandinavia, as well as Western Asia, but it has now spread to virtually all temperate zones of the world. Countries in which it has assumed pest proportions include the USA, Canada, Argentina, Hawai‘i, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa." (Ecoport)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 18)
"An often noxious weed of wasteland, neglected pastures etc." Vouchers cited: J. Pickard (NSW), A.C. Beauglehole 5658 (CANB, MEL), J. Pickard 3475 (NSW), J. Pickard in A.N. Rodd 1337 (NSW), J. Pickard 2782 (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 18, 28)
"Espèce pionnière et héliophile, elle colonise principalement les zones ouvertes et perturbées (zones de pâturages, lisières de forêt, bords de routes, berges de rivières). Son invasion serait favorisée par le surpâturage et les incendies. Sa dynamique d’invasion à Rapa Nui a été explosive, liée à la fois à la dispersion des graines par le vent et à la forte perturbation des milieux (surpâturage, incendie)" (Meyer, 2008; pp. 18-19).
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 457, 458, 552)
"Planta colectada por C. Skottsberg en 1917. Nunca hemos encontrado esta especie en terreno. Se trata posiblemente de una adventicia histórica; sin embargo esta especie, presente en el continente, tiene tendencia a multiplicarse fácilmente y merece estar presente en la memoria de los botánicos a la hora de trabajar en estas islas".
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 287)
Voucher cited: Rock 3315 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 287)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 287)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 287)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 20)
Single dead plant observed on this survey.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 287)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 287)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 287)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 379)
Parue dans des localités dispersées du Sud de la côte Ouest, infestant rapidement des superficies importantes
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 33)
Vouchers cited: Ferré in MacKee 22373, Ayard in MacKee 27180, Aymard in MacKee 27316, MacKee 31206, MacKee 31998
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Leprédour introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 33)
Voucher cited: Veillon 1942
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 311)
"Waste land, roadsides, pastures, gardens, cultivated land, disturbed forest".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 450)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 207)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Farmlands, wet grasslands; 400-1800 m. N Xinjiang.
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pichincha
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 214)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 311)
"Waste land, roadsides, pastures, gardens, cultivated land, disturbed forest".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cuzco
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "Mowing later in the season, e.g. just before seed dispersal, proved to be effective in reducing populations" (Weber, 2003; p. 110). .

"La lutte manuelle (par arrachage de la rosette de feuilles) est difficile en raison de la racine pivotante et des feuilles épineuses" (Meyer, 2008; p. 19).

Chemical:  "Seedlings can be treated with herbicides containing MCPA, 2,4-D, dicamba or picloram"  (Weber, 2003; p. 110).

"La lutte chimique avec un herbicide (à base de glyphosate, trichlopyr, dicamba ou diméthylamide « MCPA », Parsons & Cuthbertson, 2004) est utilisable uniquement sur de petites surfaces et par pulvérisation sur la plante en phase rosette et sur les plantules" (Meyer, 2008; p. 19).

Biological:  Biological control information from the publication "Biological control of invasive plants in the eastern United States".

"La lutte biologique avec l’introduction d’insectes phytophages (Coléoptères Curculionidés ou charançons) a été utilisée depuis une quarantaine d’années au Canada, en Afrique du Sud, en Nouvelle-Zélande, en Australie et aux Etats-Unis (Julien & Griffiths, 1998). Le « Department of Plant Industries » de l’état de Victoria en Australie a relâché l’insecte Urophora stylata (« seed gall fly », Diptères, Tephritidés) à la fin des années 80. Une évaluation des résultats de la lutte biologique menée entre 2001-2003 a montré que les galles et les larves étaient présentes sur 17 à 83% des capitules dans trois sites étudiés, avec une réduction de la production de graines de 28 à 46% sur un site (Jean-Louis Sagliocco, Quarantine Manager, Biosciences Research Division, DPI, Victoria, comm. pers. 2008)"  (Meyer, 2008; p. 19).

Additional information:
Photos and other information from Chileflora.

Additional online information about Cirsium vulgare is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Cirsium vulgare as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Cirsium vulgare may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John. 2011. Naturalized species in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Unpublished spreadsheet.

Australian National Botanic Gardens. 2013. Australian plant common name database. Online resource.

Belov, Michail. 2013. Chileflora (online resource).

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido. 2006. Nouveau catalogue de la flore vaculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chile) [Nuevo catálogo de la flora vacular del Archipélago Juan Fernández (Chile)]. Acta Bot. Gallica 153(4):399-587.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James. 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. John Wiley & Sons. 1129 pp.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2008. Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques) [Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 62 pp. .

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

National Herbarium of New South Wales. 2013. PlantNet: New South Wales Flora online. The Plant Information Network System of the Botanic Gardens Trust Version 2.0. Online resource.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Pickard, J. 1984. Exotic plants on Lord Howe Island: Distribution in space and time, 1853-1981. J. of Biogeography 11:181-208.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. 1996. New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34:447-462.

Tassin, Jacques. 2005. Jacques Tassin (IAC-CIRAD), personal communication.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Van Driesche, Roy/Lyon, Suzanne/Blossey, Bernd/Hoddle, Mark/Reardon, Richard. 2002. Biological control of invasive plants in the eastern United States. USDA Forest Service Publication FHTET-2002-04. 413 pp.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch. 1365 pp.

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya. 2006. An annotated checklist and new island records of flowering plants from Lehua Islet, Ni‘ihau, Hawai‘i. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004-2005. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 87:19-29.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 8 JAN 2011.